On Tuesday, Jack expressed concern about the possibility that the Trump presidency will end up being overly weak, and he highlighted a variety of actors who have robustly begun to check Trump’s exercises of power. One set of actors he did not include—but which have an important role to play here—are foreign military and intelligence services. Those foreign actors with whom the United States cooperates can play a powerful role in constraining U.S. options—either because of their own policy preferences or their own legal constraints. Indeed, foreign actors can even stimulate the functioning of domestic checks and balances or at least simulate similar effects.

Ashley S. Deeks, Foreign Constraints on the Trump Administration, Lawfare (February 16, 2017).