How must states’ intelligence agencies approach their international law obligations? From the perspective of international law itself, there is a fairly clear answer: Like all sub-state entities, intelligence communities (ICs) must comply with those international obligations assumed by their states. International law does not allow certain state actors to invoke their domestic laws or structures as an excuse to ignore international law.

Ashley S. Deeks, Do U.S. and UK Spy Agencies Approach International Law the Same Way?, Lawfare (December 9, 2015).