Federal court of appeals judges have staffs consisting usually of a secretary and four law clerks; some judges have externs as (law students working part time without pay). These staffs are essential, given judicial workloads and judges’ limitations. Yet not much is known about how the judges manage their staffs. Each judge knows, of course, but judges rarely exchange information about staff management. Nor is there, to our knowledge, a literature that attempts to compare and evaluate the varieties of staff management techniques employed by federal court of appeals judges. This article aims to fill that gap. It is based on interviews, some in person, most by telephone, of 75 judges drawn from a number of different federal courts of appeals.




G. Mitu Gulati & Richard A. Posner, The Management of Staff by Federal Court of Appeals Judges, 69 Vanderbilt Law Review, 479–497 (2016).