In the lead up to Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, the United States and its allies attempted a delicate balancing act of diplomacy and deterrence. While the United States and the North American Treaty Organization (NATO) brought Russia to the negotiating table, they also issued threats of sanctions and disclosed intelligence to undermine pretextual claims that Russia might make to justify an invasion. Despite these efforts, Russia announced on February 21 that it would recognize the independence of two regions of eastern Ukraine, Donetsk and Luhansk, and on February 24, Russia invaded Ukraine.

Kristen Eichensehr, Russia Invades Ukraine, 116 American Journal of International Law 593–604 (2022).
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