Michael A. Livermore

  • Edward F. Howrey Professor of Law
  • Director, Program in Law, Communities and the Environment (PLACE)

Michael A. Livermore joined the faculty in 2013 and serves as director of the Program in Law, Communities and the Environment (PLACE). He teaches courses on environmental law, regulation and legal technology. His research focuses on environmental law, cost-benefit analysis and the application of data science techniques to legal texts. He frequently collaborates on interdisciplinary projects with researchers in other academic fields, including economics, computer science, neurology and the humanities.

Livermore is the author of dozens of academic works, which have appeared in top law journals as well as peer-reviewed legal, scientific, and social science journals.

Livermore is a leading expert on the use of cost-benefit analysis to evaluate regulation. He is the co-author of Reviving Rationality: Saving Cost-Benefit Analysis for the Sake of the Environment and Our Health (Oxford University Press, 2020) and Retaking Rationality: How Cost-Benefit Analysis Can Better Protect the Environment and Our Health (Oxford University Press, 2008) and co-editor of The Globalization of Cost-Benefit Analysis in Environmental Policy (Oxford University Press, 2013).

Livermore is also one of the early scholars involved in a new research paradigm in legal scholarship that uses computational text analysis tools to study the law and legal institutions. He has several papers that deploy natural language processing techniques on legal materials, and, with collaborator Daniel N. Rockmore, edited Law as Data: Computation, Text, and the Future of Legal Analysis (Santa Fe Institute Press, 2019). Livermore hosts the Online Workshop on the Computational Analysis of Law, a global forum for scholars to present cutting-edge research in this area.

Prior to joining the faculty, Livermore was the founding executive director of the Institute for Policy Integrity at New York University School of Law, a think tank dedicated to improving the quality of government decision-making. In that capacity, he participated in dozens of regulatory proceedings on a diverse set of issues ranging from climate change to prison safety.

Livermore earned his J.D. magna cum laude from NYU Law, where he was a Furman Scholar, was elected to the Order of the Coif, and served as a managing editor of the Law Review. After law school, he spent a year as a fellow at NYU Law's Center on Environmental and Land Use Law before clerking for Judge Harry T. Edwards on the U.S. Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit.

Livermore is a public member of the Administrative Conference of the United States.


  • J.D.
    New York University School of Law
  • B.A.
    University of Albany


Reviving Rationality: Saving Cost-Benefit Analysis for the Sake of the Environment and Our Health (with Richard L. Revesz) (Oxford University Press, 2020).

Law as Data: Computation, Text, and the Future of Legal Analysis (ed. with Daniel Rockmore) (Santa Fe Institute Press, 2019).

Environmental Law and Policy (4th ed. with Richard Revesz, Caroline Cecot, and Jayni Foley Hein) (Foundation Press, 2019) .

The Globalization of Cost-Benefit Analysis in Environmental Policy (ed. with Richard L. Revesz) (Oxford University Press, 2013).

Retaking Rationality: How Cost-Benefit Analysis Can Better Protect the Environment and Our Health (with Richard L. Revesz) (Oxford University Press, 2008).

Book Chapters:

“Regulating Regulation: Impact Assessment and Trade” (with Jason Schwartz), in Megaregulation Contested: Global Economic Ordering After TPP (Oxford University Press, Benedict Kingsbury et al. eds., 2019).

“Economics and Environmental Law Scholarship” (with Caroline Cecot), in Perspectives on Environmental Law Scholarship: Essays on Purpose, Shape and Direction (Cambridge University Press, Ole W. Pedersen ed., 2018).

“Environmental Law and Economics” (with Richard L. Revesz), in Francisco Parisi, ed., 2 Oxford Handbook of Law and Economics 509 (Oxford University Press, 2017).

“Analysis to Inform Public Discourse on Jobs and Regulation” (with Jason A. Schwartz), in Cory Coglianese et al., eds., Does Regulation Kill Jobs? 239 (University of Pennsylvania Press, 2013).

“Can Executive Review Help Prevent Capture?" (with Richard L. Revesz), in Dan Carpenter & David Moss, eds., Preventing Regulatory Capture: Special Interest Influence and How to Limit It (Cambridge University Press, 2013). 

“The Shape of Distributional Analysis” (with Jennifer S. Rosenberg), in Michael A. Livermore & Richard L Revesz, eds., The Globalization of Cost-Benefit Analysis in Environmental Policy 69 (Oxford University Press, 2013).


“Climate-Society Feedback Effects: Be Wary of Unidentified Connections” (with Peter Howard), Int'l Rev. of Envtl. and Resource Econ. (2021).

“Law Search in the Age of the Algorithm” (with Peter Beling, Keith Carlson, Faraz Dadgostari, Mauricio Guim, and Daniel Rockmore) Mich. St. L. Rev. 1183 (2021).

“Where Nature's Rights Go Wrong” (with Mauricio Guim).

“Computational Methods in Legal Analysis” (with Jens Frankenreiter), 16 Ann. Rev. L. & Soc. Sci. __ (2020).

“The Problem of Data Bias in the Pool of Published U.S. Appellate Court Opinions” (with Keith Carlson and Daniel N. Rockmore), 17 J. Empirical Legal Stud. 224 (2020).

“Modeling Law Search as Prediction” (with Faraz Dadgostari, Mauricio Guim, Peter A. Beling, and Daniel N. Rockmore), Artificial Intelligence & L. (2020). 

“Administrative Law in an Era of Partisan Volatility” (with Daniel Richardson), 69 Emory Law Journal 1 (2019).

“Sociopolitical Feedbacks and Climate Change” (with Peter Howard), 43 Harv. Envtl. L. Rev. 119 (2019).

“Bending the Law: Geometric Tools for Quantifying Influence in the Multinetwork of Legal Opinions” (with Greg Leibon, Reed Harder, Allen Riddell and Dan Rockmore), 26 Artificial Intelligence & L. 145 (2018).

“Centralizing Congressional Oversight,” 32 J.L. & Pol. 261 (2018).
SSRN | HeinOnline (PDF)

“Computationally Assisted Participatory Rulemaking” (with Vladimir Eidelman and Brian Grom), 93 Notre Dame L. Rev. 997 (2018).
SSRN | HeinOnline (PDF)

“The Supreme Court and the Judicial Genre” (with Allen B. Riddell and Daniel N. Rockmore), 59 Ariz. L. Rev. 837 (2017).
SSRN | HeinOnline (PDF)

“The One-In, Two-Out Executive Order Is a Zero” (with Caroline Cecot), 166 U. Pa. L. Rev. Online 1 (2017).
HeinOnline (PDF)

“The Perils of Experimentation,” 126 Yale L.J. 636 (2017).
Article | HeinOnline (PDF)

“Rethinking Health-Based Environmental Standards and Cost-Benefit Analysis” (with Richard L. Revesz)

“A Quantitative Analysis of Trends in Writing Style on the U.S. Supreme Court” (with Keith Carlson and Daniel Rockmore)
SSRN | HeinOnline (PDF)

“Interest Groups and Environmental Policy: Inconsistent Positions and Missed Opportunities”(with Richard L. Revesz), 45 Envtl. L. Rev. 1 (2015).
SSRN | HeinOnline (PDF)

“The Measurement of Subjective Value and Its Relation to Contingent Valuation and Environmental Public Goods” (with others), 10 PLoS ONE e0132842 (2015).

“Political Parties and Presidential Oversight,” 67 Ala. L. Rev. 45 (2015).
HeinOnline (PDF)

“Can Executive Review Help Prevent Capture?” (with Richard L. Revesz), in Daniel Carpenter & David A. Moss, eds., Preventing Regulatory Capture: Special Interest Influence and How to Limit It 420 (Cambridge University Press, 2014).

“Cost-Benefit Analysis and Agency Independence,” 81 U. Chi. L. Rev. 609 (2014).

“Improve Economic Models of Climate Change” (with others), Nature, Apr. 10, 2014, at 173.

“Rethinking Health-Based Environmental Standards” (with Richard L. Revesz), 89 N.Y.U. L. Rev. 1184 (2014).

“Tacking in Shifting Winds: A Short Response to Bubb and Pildes” (with Quinn Curtis and Andrew Hayashi), 127 Harv. L. Rev. F. 204 (2014).

“The Meaning of Green Growth,” 3 Mich. J. Envtl. & Admin. L. 33 (2013).

“Patience is an Economic Virtue: Real Options, Natural Resources, and Offshore Oil,” 84U. Colo. L. Rev. 581 (2013).
HeinOnline (PDF)

“Regional Variation, Holdouts, and Climate Treaty Negotiations” (with J. Scott Holladay), 4J. Benefit-Cost Analysis 131 (2013).

“Regulatory Review, Capture, and Agency Inaction” (with Richard L. Revesz), 101 Geo. L.J. 1337 (2013).
HeinOnline (PDF)

"Can Cost-Benefit Analysis of Environmental Policy Go Global?" 19 N.Y.U. Envtl. L.J. 146 (2011).

"Retaking Rationality: Two Years Later" (with Richard L. Revesz), 48 Hous. L.J. 1 (2011).

"A Brief Comment on 'Humanizing Cost-Benefit Analysis,'" 2011 Eur. J. Risk Reg. 13.

"Water Pollution and Regulatory Cooperation in China" (with Craig Wenner & Hong Lan), 44 Cornell Int'l L.J. 101 (2011).

"Environmental Law: The Future of Cost-Benefit Analysis in Environmental Policy," 17 U. Balt. J. Envtl. L. 189 (2010) (transcript of panel discussion).

"Análisis Cost-Beneficio en Paises en Vías de Desarrollo," 117 Estudios Públicos 21 (2010).

"Realist Lawyers and Realistic Legalists: A Brief Rebuttal to Judge Posner," 59 Duke L.J.1187 (2010).

"Pitfalls of Empirical Studies that Attempt to Understand the Factors Affecting Appellate Decisionmaking" (with Hon. Harry T. Edwards) 58 Duke L.J. 1895 (2009).

"Cause or Cure? Cost-Benefit Analysis and Regulatory Gridlock," 17 N.Y.U. Envtl. L.J. 107 (2008).

"Reviving Environmental Protection: Preference-Directed Regulation and Regulatory Ossification," 25 Va. Envtl. L.J. 311 (2007).

Book Note, "Conversation, Representation, and Allocation: Justice Breyer's Active Liberty" (with D. Theodore Rave), 81 N.Y.U. L. Rev. 1505 (2006).

Note, "Authority and Legitimacy in Global Governance: Deliberation, Institutional Differentiation, and the Codex Alimentarius," 81 N.Y.U. L. Rev. 766 (2006).




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