In Garcia v. San Antonio Metropolitan Transit Authority (1985), a majority of the U.S. Supreme Court's justices did violence to the principles of the U.S. Constitution by leaving the states to take their Tenth Amendment complaints to the Congress. In abdicating their proper constitutional role, the majority of justices ignored history, political realities, and constitutional principle. The Constitution's institutional arrangements, of which federalism is a key component, are an intrinsic part of the constitutional scheme by which government power is limited and individual rights are protected.

A. E. Dick Howard, <em>Garcia</em>: Of Federalism and Constitutional Values, 16 Publius 17–31 (1986).
UVA Law Faculty Affiliations