John T. Monahan

  • John S. Shannon Distinguished Professor of Law
  • Professor of Psychology
  • Hunton Andrews Kurth Professor of Law

John Monahan, a psychologist, teaches and writes about how courts use behavioral science evidence, violence risk assessment, criminology and mental health law. He is a member of the National Academy of Medicine and of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and has served on the National Research Council. Monahan was the founding president of the American Psychological Association’s Division of Psychology and Law and has been a fellow of the John Simon Guggenheim Foundation and the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences. He also has been a visiting fellow at several law schools — including Harvard, Stanford, New York University and the University of California, Berkeley — as well as at the American Academy in Rome, and at All Souls College, Oxford. He twice directed research networks for the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation. In 1997, he received an honorary law degree from the City University of New York.

Monahan is the author or editor of 17 books and more than 300 articles and chapters. His work has been cited more than 30,000 times. One of his books, Social Science in Law, co-authored with Laurens Walker, is now in its ninth edition and has been translated into Chinese. Two of his other books won the Manfred Guttmacher Award of the American Psychiatric Association for outstanding research in law and psychiatry. Monahan’s work has been cited frequently by courts, including the California Supreme Court in the landmark case of Tarasoff v. Regents, and the U.S. Supreme Court in Barefoot v. Estelle, in which he was referred to as “the leading thinker on the issue” of violence risk assessment.

Scholarship Profile: Mental Health Law’s “Leading Thinker” (Virginia Journal 1999)

Education

  • Ph.D.
    Indiana University
    1972
  • B.A.
    State University of New York at Stony Brook
    1968

Books

Coercive Treatment in Psychiatry: Clinical, Legal and Ethical Aspects (edited with Thomas W. Kallert, Juan E. Mezzich), Wiley Blackwell (2011).
An Introduction to Social Science in Law (with W. Laurens Walker), Foundation Press (2006).
Mandated Community Treatment (edited with John Petrila)21 , Behavioral Sciences & the Law (2003).
Adjudicative Competence: The MacArthur Studies (with Richard J. Bonnie et al.), Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers (2002).
Rethinking Risk Assessment: The MacArthur Study of Mental Disorder and Violence (with Paul S. Appelbaum et al.), Oxford University Press (2001).
Coercion in Mental Health Services—International Perspectives (edited with Joseph P. Morrissey), JAI Press (1999).
Mental Disorder, Work Disability, and the Law (edited with Richard J. Bonnie), University of Chicago Press (1997).
Coercion and Aggressive Community Treatment: A New Frontier in Mental Health Law (edited with Deborah L. Dennis), Plenum Press (1996).
Violence and Mental Disorder: Developments in Risk Assessment (edited with Henry J. Steadman), University of Chicago Press (1994).
Children, Mental Health, and the Law (edited with Edward P. Mulvey, N. Dickon Reppucci, Lois A. Weithorn), Sage Publications (1984).
Mentally Disordered Offenders: Perspectives from Law and Social Science (edited with Henry J. Steadman), Plenum Press (1983).
The Clinical Prediction of Violent Behavior, National Institute of Mental Health (1981).
Prevention in Mental Health: Research, Policy and Practice (edited with Barbara C. Bader, Richard F. Ketterer, Richard H. Price), Sage Publications (1980).
Psychology and Community Change (with Kenneth Heller), Dorsey Press (1977).
Violence and Criminal Justice (edited with Duncan Chappell), Lexington Books (1975).

Textbooks

Social Science in Law: Cases and Materials (with W. Laurens Walker), Foundation Press (10 ed. 2021).
Social Science in Law: Cases and Materials (with W. Laurens Walker), Foundation Press (9 ed. 2018).
Social Science in Law: Cases and Materials (with W. Laurens Walker), Foundation Press (8 ed. 2014).
Social Science in Law: Cases and Materials (with W. Laurens Walker), Foundation Press (7 ed. 2010).
Social Science in Law: Cases and Materials (with W. Laurens Walker), Foundation Press (6 ed. 2006).
Social Science in Law: Cases and Materials (with W. Laurens Walker), Foundation Press (5 ed. 2002).
Social Science in Law: Cases and Materials (with W. Laurens Walker), Foundation Press (4 ed. 1998).
Social Science in Law: Cases and Materials (with W. Laurens Walker), Foundation Press (3 ed. 1994).
Social Science in Law: Cases and Materials (with W. Laurens Walker), Foundation Press (2 ed. 1990).
Social Science in Law: Cases and Materials (with W. Laurens Walker), Foundation Press (1 ed. 1985).

Book Chapters

The Classification of Violence Risk (COVR), in Handbook of Violence Risk Assessment, Routledge, 93-105 (2 ed. 2021).
Clinical and Actuarial Predictions of Violence (with J. Skeem), in Modern Scientific Evidence: The Law and Science of Expert Testimony, Thomson West, 177-190 (2020).
Predictions of Violence, in The Roots of Modern Psychology and Law: A Narrative History, Oxford University Press, The Roots of Modern Psychology and Law: A Narrative History (2018).
Risk Assessment in Sentencing, in Reforming Criminal Justice, Academy for Justice, 77-94 (2017).
Violence Risk Assessment: The State of the Science (with Jennifer L. Skeem), in Principles and Practice of Forensic Psychiatry, CRC Press, 713-720 (3 ed. 2017).
The Individual Risk Assessment of Terrorism: Recent Developments, in The Handbook of the Criminology of Terrorism, Wiley & Sons, 520-534 (2016).
Legal Process and Social Science: United States, in International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, Elsevier, 767-771 (2 ed. 2015).
Afterword, in Violence Risk Assessment and Management: Advances Through Structured Professional Judgement and Sequential Redirections, Wiley Blackwell, 195-199 (2 ed. 2014).
Dangerousness (with Nicola S. Gray et al.), in Forensic Psychiatry: Clinical, Legal, and Ethical Issues, CRC Press, 529-550 (2014).
The Inclusion of Biological Risk Factors in Violence Risk Assessments, in Bioprediction, Biomarkers, and Bad Behavior: Scientific, Legal, and Ethical Challenges, Oxford University Press, 57-76 (2014).
Violence Risk Assessment, in Handbook of Psychology, Wiley, 541-555 (2 ed. 2013).
Extending Violence Reduction Principles to Justice-Involved Persons with Mental Illness (with Henry J. Steadman), in Using Social Science to Reduce Violent Offending, Oxford University Press, 245-261 (2012).
Mandated Psychiatric Treatment in the Community—Forms, Prevalance, Outcomes and Controversies, in Coercive Treatment in Psychiatry: Clinical, Legal and Ethical Aspects, Wiley Blackwell, 33-48 (2011).
Violence and Mandated Community Treatment: The MacArthur Studies, in Violence in Clinical Psychiatry: Proceedings of the 7th European Congress on Violence in Clinical Psychiatry, Kavanah, 34-38 (2011).
The Classification of Violence Risk, in Handbook of Violence Risk Assessment, Routledge, 187-198 (2010).
Standards of Legal Admissibility and Their Implications for Psychological Science (with David L. Faigman), in Psychological Science in the Courtroom: Controversies and Consensus, Guilford Press, 3-25 (2009).
Classification of Violence Risk (COVR), in Encyclopedia of Psychology and Law, Sage, 92-93 (2008).
Computer-Assisted Violence Risk Assessment among People with Mental Disorder, in Psychology and Law: Bridging the Gap, Ashgate, 211-222 (2008).
MacArthur Violence Risk Assessment Study, in Encyclopedia of Psychology and Law, Sage, 467-470 (2008).
The Scientific Status of Research on Clinical and Actuarial Predictions of Violence, in Modern Scientific Evidence: The Law and Science of Expert Testimony, Thomson/West (2007).
The Future of Violence Risk Management, in The Future of Imprisonment, Oxford University Press, 237-263 (2004).
Mandated Community Treatment: The Potential Role of Violence Risk Assessment, in Involuntary Detention and Therapeutic Jurisprudence: International Perspectives on Civil Commitment, Ashgate, 455-468 (2003).
Violence Risk Assessment in American Law, in Adversarial Versus Inquisitorial Justice : Psychological Perspectives on Criminal Justice Systems, Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, 81-89 (2003).
Violence Risk Assessment, in Handbook of Psychology, Wiley, 527-540 (1 ed. 2003).
Prediction of Crime and Recidivism, in Encyclopedia of Crime and Justice, Macmillan Reference USA, 1125-1131 (2 ed. 2002).
Psychopathy, Treatment Involvement, and Subsequent Violence among Civil Psychiatric Patients, in Modern Scientific Evidence: The Law and Science of Expert Testimony, West, 423-445 (2002).
Legal Process and Social Science: United States, in International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, Elsevier, 8660-8663 (1 ed. 2001).
Major Mental Disorder and Violence: Epidemiology and Risk Assessment, in Clinical Assessment of Dangerousness: Empirical Contributions, Cambridge University Press, 89-102 (2001).
Violence Risk Assessment: A Quarter Century of Research (with Henry J. Steadman), in The Evolution of Mental Health Law, American Psychological Association, 195-211 (2001).
'Dangerousness': Violence Risk Assessment, in Encyclopedia of Psychology, Oxford University Press, 169-170 (2000).
Reducing Violence Risk: Diagnostically Based Clues from the MacArthur Violence Risk Assessment Study (with Paul S. Appelbaum), in Effective Prevention of Crime and Violence Among the Mentally Ill , Kluwer, 19-34 (2000).
Sampling Damages (with W. Laurens Walker), in Class Actions and Other Multi-Party Litigation: Cases and Materials , West Group, 822-826 (2000).
Violence and Mental Disorder: Recent Research, in Understanding and Treating Violent Psychiatric Patients , American Psychiatric Press, 167 (2000).
Coercion in the Provision of Mental Health Services: The MacArthur Studies (with et al.), in Research in Community and Mental Health, Vol. 10: Coercion in Mental Health Services - International Perspectives, JAI Press, 13-30 (1999).
Clinical and Actuarial Predictions of Violence, in Modern Scientific Evidence: The Law and Science of Expert Testimony, West, 300-318 (1 ed. 1997).
Epilogue (with Richard J. Bonnie), in Mental Disorder, Work Disability, and the Law, University of Chicago Press, 299-301 (1997).
Major Mental Disorders and Violence to Others, in Handbook of Antisocial Behavior, John Wiley & Sons, 92-100 (1997).
Coercion to Inpatient Treatment: Initial Results and Implications for Assertive Treatment in the Community (with Nancy S. Bennett et al.), in Coercion and Aggressive Community Treatment: A New Frontier in Mental Health Law, Plenum Press, 13-28 (1996).
Designing a New Generation of Risk Assessment Research (with Paul S. Appelbaum et al.), in Violence and Mental Disorder: Developments in Risk Assessment, University of Chicago Press, 297-318 (1994).
Toward a Rejuvenation of Risk Assessment Research (with Henry J. Steadman), in Violence and Mental Disorder: Developments in Risk Assessment, University of Chicago Press, 1-17 (1994).
Causes of Violence, in Drugs & Violence in America: Proceedings of the Inaugural Symposium on Crime and Punishment in the United States, US Government Print Office, 77-85 (1993).
Dangerousness: A View from the United States of America, in Forensic Psychiatry: Clinical, Legal, and Ethical Issues, Betterworth-Heinemann, 640-645 (1993).
Prediction of Criminal Behavior: Recent Developments in Research and Policy in the United States, in Criminal Behavior and the Justice System: Psychological Perspectives, Springer-Verlag, 40-52 (1989).
Foreword, in Clinical Treatment of the Violent Person, Guilford Press, xv-xviii (1987).
Police and the Mentally Disordered, in Police Selection and Training: The Role of Psychology, Martinus Nijhoff, 175-186 (1986).
Evaluating Potentially Violent Persons, in Psychology, Psychiatry, and the Law: A Clinical and Forensic Handbook, Professional Resource Exchange, 9-39 (1985).
Identifying and Treating the Mentally Disordered Prison Inmate (with Eliot Hartstone, Pamela Clark Robbins & Henry J. Steadman), in Mental Health and Criminal Justice, Sage Publications, 279-296 (1984).
Ethical Issues in Prediction of Criminal Violence, in Solutions to Ethical and Legal Problems in Social Research, Academic Press, 83-96 (1983).
Individual-Process Consultation (with Kenneth Heller), in The Mental Health Consultation Field, Human Sciences Press, 57-69 (1983).
Mentally Disordered Sex Offenders (with Sharon Kantorowski Davis), in Mentally Disordered Offenders: Perspectives from Law and Social Science, Plenum Press, 191-204 (1983).
Prediction of Crime and Recidivism, in Encyclopedia of Crime and Justice, Free Press, 1170 (1 ed. 1983).
Prisoners Transferred to Mental Hospitals (with Sharon Kantorowski Davis, Eliot Hartstone & Henry J. Steadman), in Mentally Disordered Offenders: Perspectives from Law and Social Science, Plenum Press, 233-244 (1983).
The Prediction of Violent Behavior: Developments in Psychology and Law, in Psychology and the Law, American Psychological Association, 151-176 (1983).
Childhood Predictors of Adult Criminal Behavior, in Early Childhood Intervention and Juvenile Delinquency, Lexington Books, 11-21 (1982).
Situational Approaches to Understanding and Predicting Individual Violent Behavior (with Dierdre Klassen), in Criminal Violence, Sage Publications, 292-319 (1982).
Three Lingering Issues in Patient Rights, in Psychiatric Patient Rights and Patient Advocacy: Issues and Evidence, Human Sciences Press, 261-277 (1982).
Identifying Chronic Criminals, in Confinement in Maximum Custody: New Last-Resort Prisons in the United States and Western Europe, Lexington Books, 3-14 (1981).

Articles & Reviews

Impact of Risk Assessment on Judges’ Fairness in Sentencing Relatively Poor Defendants (with Nicholas Scurich & Jennifer Skeem), 44 Law & Human Behavior 51-59 (2020).
Judging Risk (with Brandon L. Garrett), 108 California Law Review 439-493 (2020).
Lost in Translation: “Risks,” “Needs,” and “Evidence” in Implementing the First Step Act (with Jennifer Skeem), 38 Behavioral Sciences & the Law 279-286 (2020).
Risk Assessment in Sentencing and Plea Bargaining: The Roles of Prosecutors and Defense Attorneys (with Brandon L. Garrett, Alexander Jakubow & Anne Metz), Behavioral Sciences & the Law 1-11 (2020).
Valid or Voodoo? A Qualitative Study of Attorney Perceptions of Risk Assessment in Sentencing and Plea Bargaining (with Brandon L. Garrett, Anne Metz & Luke Siebert), 48 Journal of Community Psychology 2053-2068 (2020).
Assessing Risk: The Use of Risk Assessment in Sentencing (with Brandon L. Garrett), 103 Judicature 42-49 (2019).
Judicial Reliance on Risk Assessment in Sentencing Drug and Property Offenders: A Test of the Treatment Resource Hypothesis (with Brandon L. Garrett & Alexander Jakubow), 46 Criminal Justice & Behavior 799-810 (2019).
Lawyers at the Peak of Their Careers: A 30-Year Longitudinal Study of Job and Life Satisfaction (with Jeffrey Swanson), 16 Journal of Empirical Legal Studies 4-25 (2019).
Risk and Resources: A Qualitative Perspective on Low-Level Sentencing in Virginia (with Brandon L. Garrett, Anne L. Metz & Luke Siebert), 47 Journal of Community Psychology 1476-1492 (2019).
Judicial Appraisals of Risk Assessment in Sentencing (with Brandon L. Garrett & Anne L. Metz), 36 Behavioral Sciences & the Law 565-575 (2018).
Predicting Violent Behavior: What Can Neuroscience Add? (with Joshua W. Buckholtz et al.), 22 Trends in Cognitive Sciences 111-123 (2018).
Age, Risk Assessment, and Sanctioning: Overestimating the Old, Underestimating the Young (with Christopher Lowenkamp & Jennifer L. Skeem), 41 Law & Human Behavior 191-201 (2017).
Predicting Sexual Assault Perpetration in the US Army Using Administrative Data (with David M. Benedek et al.), 53 American Journal of Preventative Medicine 661-669 (2017).
Sexual Assault Victimization and Mental Health Treatment, Suicide Attempts, and Career Outcomes Among Women in the US Army (with Paul D. Bliese et al.), 107 American Journal of Public Health 732-739 (2017).
Using Administrative Data to Identify U.S. Army Soldiers at High-Risk of Perpetrating Minor Violent Crimes (with David M. Benedek et al.), 84 Journal of Psychiatric Research 128-136 (2017).
Violence to Others, Violent Self-Victimization, and Violent Victimization by Others Among Persons with a Mental Illness (with Paul S. Appelbaum, Pamela Clark Robbins & Roumen Vesselinov), 68 Psychiatric Services 516-519 (2017).
Gatekeeping Science: Using the Structure of Scientific Research to Distinguish Between Admissibility and Weight in Expert Testimony (with David L. Faigman & Christopher Slobogin), 110 Northwestern University Law Review 859-904 (2016).
Gender, Risk Assessment, and Sanctioning: The Cost of Treating Women Like Men (with Chistopher Lowenkamp & Jennifer L. Skeem), 40 Law & Human Behavior 580-593 (2016).
Predicting Non-Familial Major Physical Violent Crime Perpetration in the US Army from Administrative Data (with Paul Bliese et al.), 46 Psychological Medicine 303-316 (2016).
Psychosis Uncommonly and Inconsistently Precedes Violence Among High Risk Individuals (with Paul S. Appelbaum et al.), 4 Clinical Psychological Science 40-49 (2016).
Risk Assessment in Criminal Sentencing (with Jennifer L. Skeem), 12 Annual Review of Clinial Psychology 489-513 (2016).
Group to Individual (G2i) Inference in Scientific Expert Testimony (with David L. Faigman & Christopher Slobogin), 81 University of Chicago Law Review 417-480 (2014).
Risk Redux: The Resurgence of Risk Assessment in Criminal Sanctioning (with Jennifer L. Skeem), 26 Federal Sentencing Reporter 158-166 (2014).
The Evolution of Violence Risk Assessment (with Jennifer L. Skeem), 19 CNS Spectrums 419-424 (2014).
Gangs, Violence, and Psychiatry, 170 American Journal of Psychiatry 942-943 (2013).
The Cost of Assisted Outpatient Treatment: Can It Save States Money? (with Thomas G. McGuire et al.), 170 American Journal of Psychiatry 1423-1432 (2013).
Violent Behavior and Gender of Swedish Psychiatric Patients: A Prospective Clinical Study (with Marianne Kristiansson & Joakim Sturup), 64 Psychiatric Services 688-693 (2013).
Innumeracy and Unpacking: Bridging the Nomothetic/Idiographic Divide in Violence Risk Assessment (with Richard S. John & Nicholas Scurich), 36 Law & Human Behavior 548-554 (2012).
The Individual Risk Assessment of Terrorism, 18 Psychology, Public Policy, & Law 167-195 (2012).
Beyond Context: Social Facts as Case Specific Evidence (with Gregory Mitchell & W. Laurens Walker), 60 Emory Law Journal 1109-1155 (2011).
Case Specific Sociological Inference: Metanorms for Expert Opinions (with Gregory Mitchell & W. Laurens Walker), 40 Social Methods & Research 668-680 (2011).
Current Directions in Violence Risk Assessment (with Jennifer L. Skeem), 20 Current Directions in Psychological Science 38-42 (2011).
Interventions by Virginia’s Colleges to Respond to Student Mental Health Crises (with Richard J. Bonnie, Susan M. Davis & Christopher Flynn), 62 Psychiatric Services 1439-1442 (2011).
The ASA’s Missed Opportunity to Promote Sound Science in Court (with Gregory Mitchell & W. Laurens Walker), 40 Social Methods & Research 605-620 (2011).
Twenty-Five Years of Social Science in Law (with W. Laurens Walker), 35 Law & Human Behavior 72-82 (2011).
Assessing Outcomes for Consumers in New York’s Assisted Outpatient Treatment Program (with Allison R. Gilbert et al.), 61 Psychiatric Services 976-981 (2010).
Cultural Cognition and Public Policy: The Case of Outpatient Commitment Laws (with Donald Braman et al.), 34 Law & Human Behavior 118-140 (2010).
Lawyers at Mid-Career: A 20-Year Longitudinal Study of Job and Life Satisfaction (with Jeffrey W. Swanson), 6 Journal of Empirical Legal Studies 451-483 (2009).
Perceived Coercion to Treatment and Housing Satisfaction in Housing-First and Supportive Housing Programs (with Lisa Callahan & Pamela Clark Robbins), 60 Psychiatric Services 1251-1253 (2009).
Racial Disparities in Involuntary Outpatient Commitment: Are They Real? (with Thomas G. McGuire et al.), 28 Health Affairs 816-826 (2009).
The Limits of Social Framework Evidence (with Gregory Mitchell & W. Laurens Walker), 8 Law, Probability, & Risk 307-321 (2009).
Understanding and Applying Virginia’s New Statutory Civil Commitment Criteria (with Richard J. Bonnie & Bruce J. Cohen), 28 Developments in Mental Health Law 127-139 (2009).
Contextual Evidence of Gender Discrimination: The Ascendance of “Social Frameworks” (with Gregory Mitchell & W. Laurens Walker), 94 Virginia Law Review 1715-1749 (2008).
Mandated Community Treatment: Applying Leverage to Achieve Adherence, 36 Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry & the Law 282-285 (2008).
A Judges’ Guide to Using Social Science (with W. Laurens Walker), 43 Court Review 156-163 (2007).
Perceived Dangerousness and Support for Coerced Treatment for Children with Mental Health Problems (with Danielle L. Fettes et al.), 58 Psychiatric Services 619-625 (2007).
Sampling Evidence at the Crossroads (with W. Laurens Walker), 80 Southern California Law Review 969-995 (2007).
The Function of Punishment in the “Civil” Commitment of Sexually Violent Predators (with Kevin M. Carlsmith & Alison Evans), 25 Behavioral Sciences & the Law 437-448 (2007).
Gender, Threat/Control-Override Delusions and Violence (with Eric Silver & Brent Teasdale), 30 Law & Human Behavior 649-658 (2006).
Patterns of Practice in Mental Health Courts: A National Survey (with John Petrila et al.), 30 Law & Human Behavior 347-362 (2006).
Tarasoff at Thirty: How Developments in Science and Policy Shape the Common Law, 75 University of Cincinnati Law Review 497-521 (2006).
The Classification of Violence Risk (with Paul S. Appelbaum et al.), 24 Behavioral Sciences & the Law 721-730 (2006).
An Actuarial Model of Violence Risk Assessment for Persons with Mental Disorders (with Paul S. Appelbaum et al.), 56 Psychiatric Services 810-815 (2005).
From Referral to Disposition: Case Processing in Seven Mental Healthcourts (with Patricia A. Griffin et al.), 23 Behavioral Sciences & the Law 215-226 (2005).
Involuntary Psychiatric Examinations for Danger to Others in Florida after the Attacks of September 11, 2001 (with Ralph A. Catalano, Annette Christy & Eric Kessell), 56 Psychiatric Services 858-862 (2005).
Psychological Evidence at the Dawn of the Law’s Scientific Age (with David L. Faigman), 56 Annual Review of Psychology 631-659 (2005).
The Second Generation of Mental Health Courts (with Patricia A. Griffin et al.), 11 Psychology, Public Policy, & Law 527-538 (2005).
Use of Leverage to Improve Adherence to Psychiatric Treatment in the Community (with Beth Angell et al.), 56 Psychiatric Services 37-44 (2005).
Using a Five Factor Lens to Explore the Relation between Personality Traits and Violence in Psychiatric Patients (with Joshua D. Miller et al.), 73 Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 454-465 (2005).
A Multiple-Models Approach to Violence Risk Assessment among People with Mental Disorder (with Paul S. Appelbaum et al.), 31 Criminal Behavior & Mental Health 324-340 (2004).
License as Leverage: Mandating Treatment for Professionals (with Richard J. Bonnie), 3 International Journal of Forensic Mental Health 131-138 (2004).
License as Leverage: Mandating Treatment for Professionals (with Richard J. Bonnie), 3 International Journal of Forensic Mental Health 131-138 (2004).
S. 1194 Mentally Ill Offender Treatment and Crime Reduction Act of 2003, 23 Developments in Mental Health Law 19-22 (2004).
Introduction to this Issue: Mandated Community Treatment (with John Petrila), 21 Behavioral Sciences & the Law 411-414 (2003).
Endorsement of Personal Benefit of Outpatient Commitment among Persons with Severe Mental Illness (with Jeffrey W. Swanson & Marvin S. Swartz), 9 Psychology, Public Policy, & Law 70-93 (2003).
Mental Disorder, Violence, and Gender (with Pamela Clark Robbins & Eric Silver), 27 Law & Human Behavior 561-571 (2003).
Perceived Coercion at Hospital Admission and Adherence to Mental Health Treatment after Discharge (with Sarah D. Rain et al.), 54 Psychiatric Services 103-105 (2003).
Communicating Violence Risk: Frequency Formats, Vivid Outcomes, and Forensic Settings (with Jonathan Bone et al.), 1 International Journal of Forensic Mental Health 121-126 (2002).
Psychopathy, Treatment Involvement, and Subsequent Violence Among Civil Psychiatric Patients (with Edward P. Mulvey & Jennifer L. Skeem), 26 Law & Human Behavior 577-603 (2002).
The MacArthur Studies of Violence Risk, 12 Criminal Behavior & Mental Health S67-S72 (2002).
Mandated Community Treatment: Beyond Outpatient Commitment (with Paul S. Appelbaum et al.), 52 Psychiatric Services 1198-1205 (2001).
Special Section on Involuntary Outpatient Commitment: Introduction (with Marvin S. Swartz), 52 Psychiatric Services 323-324 (2001).
A Classification Tree Approach to the Development of Actuarial Violence Risk Assessment Tools (with Paul S. Appelbaum et al.), 24 Law & Human Behavior 83-100 (2000).
Could “Law and Evolution” Be the Next “Law and Economics?”, 8 Virginia Journal of Social Policy & the Law 123-128 (2000).
Developing a Clinically Useful Actuarial Tool for Assessing Violence Risk (with Paul S. Appelbaum et al.), 176 British Journal of Psychiatry 312-319 (2000).
Psychological Science Can Improve Diagnostic Decisions (with Robyn M. Dawes & John A. Swets), 1 Psychological Science in the Public Interest 1-26 (2000).
Scientific Authority: The Breast Implant Litigation and Beyond (with W. Laurens Walker), 86 Virginia Law Review 801-833 (2000).
Sources of Coercive Behaviours in Psychiatric Admissions (with Nancy Bennett et al.), 101 Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 73-79 (2000).
Violence and Delusions: Data from the MacArthur Violence Risk Assessment Study (with Paul S. Appelbaum & Pamela Clark Robbins), 157 American Journal of Psychiatry 566-572 (2000).
Violence Risk Assessment: Scientific Validity and Evidentiary Admissibility, 57 Washington & Lee Law Review 901-918 (2000).
Violent Thoughts and Violent Behavior Following Hospitalization for Mental Disorder (with Paul S. Appelbaum et al.), 68 Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 388-398 (2000).
Assessing Violence Risk among Discharged Psychiatric Patients: Toward an Ecological Approach (with Edward P. Mulvey & Eric Silver), 23 Law & Human Behavior 237-255 (1999).
Coercion in the Provision of Mental Health Services: The MacArthur Studies (with Nancy Bennett et al.), 10 Research in Community & Mental Health 13-30 (1999).
Patients’ Revisions of Their Beliefs about the Need for Hospitalization (with Nancy Bennett et al.), 156 American Journal Psychiatry 1385-1391 (1999).
Real in Their Consequences: A Sociological Approach to Understanding the Association Between Psychotic Symptoms and Violence (with Francis T. Cullen, Bruce G. Link & Ann Stueve), 64 American Sociological Review 316-332 (1999).
Sampling Liability (with W. Laurens Walker), 85 Virginia Law Review 329-351 (1999).
The Public’s View of the Competence, Dangerousness, and Need for Legal Coercion of Persons with Mental Health Problems (with Saeko Kikuzawa et al.), 89 American Journal of Public Health 1339-1345 (1999).
Violence in the Mentally Ill: Questions Remain - In Reply (with Paul S. Appelbaum et al.), 56 Archives of General Psychiatry 193-194 (1999).
Factual Sources of Psychiatric Patients’ Perceptions of Coercion in the Hospital Admission Process (with Marlene M. Eisenberg et al.), 155 American Journal of Psychiatry 1254-1260 (1998).
Factual Sources of Psychiatric Patients’ Perceptions of Coercion in the Hospital Admission Process (with Nancy Bennett et al.), 21 International Journal of Law & Psychiatry 131-146 (1998).
Psychometric Properties of the Macarthur Competence Assessment Tool-Criminal Adjudication (MacCAT-CA) (with Richard J. Bonnie et al.), 10 Psychological Assessment 435-443 (1998).
Sampling Damages (with W. Laurens Walker), 83 Iowa Law Review 545-568 (1998).
The Competence-Related Abilities of Women Criminal Defendants (with Richard J. Bonnie et al.), 26 Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law 215-22 (1998).
Violence by People Discharged from Acute Psychiatric Inpatient Facilities and by Others in the Same Neighborhoods (with Paul S. Appelbaum et al.), 55 Archives of General Psychiatry 393-401 (1998).
The MacArthur Adjudicative Competence Study: Diagnosis, Psychopathology, and Competence-related Abilities (with Richard J. Bonnie et al.), 15 Behavioral Sciences & the Law 329-345 (1997).
The MacArthur Adjudicative Competence Study: Development and Validation of a Research Instrument (with Richard J. Bonnie et al.), 21 Law & Human Behavior 141-179 (1997).
Actuarial Support for the Clinical Assessment of Violence Risk, 9 International Review of Psychiatry 167-169 (1997).
Law School Performance Predicted by Explanatory Style (with Jason M. Satterfield & Martin E. Seligman), 15 Behavioral Sciences & the Law 95-105 (1997).
Perception of Coercion (with Steven K. Hoge & Charles W. Lidz), 51 Nordic Journal of Psychiatry 214 (1997).
Perceptions of Coercion in the Admission of Voluntary and Involuntary Psychiatric Patients (with Nancy Bennett et al.), 20 International Journal of Law & Psychiatry 167-181 (1997).
The MacArthur Adjudicative Competence Study: A Comparison of Criteria for Assessing the Competence of Criminal Defendants (with Richard J. Bonnie et al.), 25 Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law 249-259 (1997).
Commentary: Dangerous Patients or Dangerous Diseases? (with Pamela J. Taylor), 312 British Journal of Medicine 967-969 (1996).
Daubert and the Reference Manual: An Essay on the Future of Science in Law (with W. Laurens Walker), 82 Virginia Law Review 837-857 (1996).
Decision-Making in Criminal Defense: An Empirical Study of Insanity Pleas and the Impact of Doubted Client Competence  (with Richard J. Bonnie et al.), 87 Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology 48-62 (1996).
Mentally Ill and Non-Mentally Ill Defendants’ Abilities to Understand Information Relevant to Adjudication: A Preliminary Study (with Richard J. Bonnie et al.), 24 Bulletin of the American Academy of Psychiatry & the Law 187-197 (1996).
Psychotic Symptoms and Disorders and the Risk of Violent Behaviour in the Community (with Randy Borum, Jeffrey W. Swanson & Marvin S. Swartz), 6 Criminal Behavior & Mental Health 309-329 (1996).
Violence by People with Mental Illness: A Consensus Statement by Advocates and Researchers (with Jean Arnold), 19 Psychiatric Rehabilitation 67-70 (1996).
Violence Prediction: The Past Twenty and the next Twenty Years, 23 Criminal Justice & Behavior 107-120 (1996).
Coercion and Commitment: Understanding Involuntary Mental Hospital Admission (with Nany Bennett et al.), 18 International Journal of Law & Psychiatry 249-263 (1995).
Perceived Coercion in Mental Hospital Admission: Pressures and Process (with Paul Slovic), 19 Law & Human Behavior 49-65 (1995).
Review of Webster et al., The Violence Prediction Scheme (reviewing Christopher T. Webster, et al., The Violence Prediction Scheme: Assessing Dangerousness in High Risk Men) 22 Criminal Justice & Behavior 446-447 (1995).
Client Abilities to Assist Counsel and Make Decisions in Criminal Cases: Findings from Three Studies (with Richard J. Bonnie, Steven K. Hoge & Norman Poythress), 18 Law & Human Behavior 427-435 (1994).
Judicial Use of Social Science Research after Daubert (with W. Laurens Walker), 2 Shepard’s Expert & Scientific Evidence Quarterly 327-342 (1994).
Mental Illness as a Factor in Criminality: A Study of Prisoners and Mental Patients (with Carmen Cirincione, Pamela Clark Robbins & Henry J. Steadman), 4 Criminal Behavior & Mental Health 33-47 (1994).
People with Mental Disorder and People Who Offend: Collecting Valid Data, 4 Criminal Behavior & Mental Health 68-83 (1994).
The Causes of Violence, 63 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin 11-15 (1994).
Inclusion, Motivation, and Good Faith: The Morality of Coercion in Mental Hospital Admission (with Nancy S. Bennett et al.), 11 Behavioral Sciences & the Law 295-306 (1993).
Patient, Family, and Staff Perceptions of Coercion in Mental Hospital Admission: An Exploratory Study (with Robert Arnold et al.), 11 Behavioral Sciences & the Law 281-293 (1993).
Review of Blackburn, The Psychology of Criminal Conduct (reviewing Ronald Blackburn, The Psychology of Criminal Coduct: Theory, Research, and Practice) 3 Criminal Behavior & Mental Health 203-204 (1993).
Two Scales for Measuring Patients’ Perceptions for Coercion During Mental Hospital Admission (with Nancy Bennett et al.), 11 Behavioral Sciences & the Law 307-321 (1993).
“A Terror to Their Neighbors”: Beliefs about Mental Disorder and Violence in Historical and Cultural Perspective, 20 Bulletin of the American Academy of Psychiatry & the Law 191-195 (1992).
Attorney-Client Decision-Making in Criminal Cases: Client Competence and Participation as Perceived by Their Attorneys (with Richard J. Bonnie, Steven K. Hoge & Norman Poythress), 10 Behavioral Sciences & the Law 385-394 (1992).
Mental Disorder and Violent Behavior: Perceptions and Evidence, 47 American Psychology 511-521 (1992).
Risk Assessment: Commentary on Poythress and Otto, 5 Forensic Report 151-154 (1992).
Schizophrenia as a Contingent Risk Factor for Criminal Violence (with Carmen Cirincione, Pamela Clark Robbins & Henry J. Steadman), 15 International Journal of Law & Psychiatry 347-358 (1992).
Empirical Questions without Empirical Answers (with W. Laurens Walker), 1991 Wisconsin Law Review 569-594 (1991).
Judicial Use of Social Science Research (with W. Laurens Walker), 15 Law & Human Behavior 571-584 (1991).
Violence in the Workplace, 32 Journal of Occupational Medicine 1021 (1990).
From the Man Who Brought You Deinstitutionalization (reviewing Thomas Szasz, Insanity: The Idea and Its Consequences) 33 Journal of Contemporary Psychology 492 (1988).
Risk Assessment of Violence among the Mentally Disordered: Generating Useful Knowledge, 11 International Journal of Law & Psychiatry 249-257 (1988).
Social Facts: Scientific Methodology as Legal Precedent (with W. Laurens Walker), 76 California Law Review 877-896 (1988).
Social Science Research in Law: A New Paradigm (with W. Laurens Walker), 43 American Psychology 465-472 (1988).
Psychologists as Law Professors (with Gary B. Melton & Michael J. Saks), 42 American Psychology 502-598 (1987).
Social Frameworks: A New Use of Social Science in Law (with W. Laurens Walker), 73 Virginia Law Review 559-598 (1987).
Dangerous and Violent Behavior, 1 State of the Art Reviews: Occupational Medicine 559-568 (1986).
Psychiatric Evaluations of Police Referrals in a General Hospital Emergency Room (with Jeraldine Braff, Joseph P. Morrissey & Henry J. Steadman), 8 Journal of International Law & Psychiatry 39-47 (1986).
Slouching toward Crime, 95 Yale Law Journal 1536-1551 (1986).
Social Authority: Obtaining, Evaluating, and Establishing Social Science in Law (with W. Laurens Walker), 134 University of Pennsylvania Law Review 477-517 (1986).
Teaching Social Science in Law: An Alternative to “Law and Society” (with W. Laurens Walker), 35 Journal of Legal Education 478-482 (1985).
The Impact of State Mental Hospital Deinstitutionalization on United States Prison Populations, 1968-1978 (with Barbara Duffee, Eliot Hartstone & Henry J. Steadman), 75 Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology 474-490 (1984).
Crime and Mental Disorder: An Epidemiological Approach (with Henry J. Steadman), 4 Crime & Justice 145-189 (1983).
Vitek and Beyond: The Empirical Context of Prison-to-Hospital Transfers (with Eliot Hartstone & Henry J. Steadman), Law & Contemporary Problems 125-136 (1982).
Clinical Prediction of Violent Behavior, 12 Psychiatric Annals 509-513 (1982).
Mentally Disordered Offenders: A National Survey of Patients and Facilities (with Sharon Kantorowski Davis et al.), 6 Law & Human Behavior 31-38 (1982).
Patients’ Perspections of the Family’s Role in Involuntary Commitment (with Herbert D. Friedlander, David Prestholt & Stephanie Splane), 33 Hospital & Community Psychology 569-572 (1982).
Review of Wexler, Mental Health Law (reviewing David B. Wexler, Mental Health Law: Major Issues) 5 International Journal of Law & Psychiatry 115-116 (1982).
Stone-Roth Model of Civil Commitment and the California Dangerousness Standard: Operational Comparison (with Herbert D. Friedlander & Mary Ruggiero), 39 Archives of General Psychiatry 1267-1271 (1982).
The Case for Prediction in the Modified Desert Model of Criminal Sentencing, 5 International Journal of Law & Psychiatry 103-113 (1982).
The Psychology of Law (with Elizabeth F. Loftus), 33 Annual Review of Psychology 441-475 (1982).
Review of Cohn & Udolf, The Criminal Justice System and Its Psychology (reviewing Alfred Cohn & Roy Udolf, The Criminal Justice System and Its Psychology) 25 Contemporary Psychology 640-641 (1980).
Empirical Analyses of Civil Commitment: Critique and Context, 11 Law & Society Review 619-628 (1977).
Prediction Research and the Role of Psychologists in Correctional Institutions (with Linda Costa Monahan), 14 San Diego Law Review 1028-1038 (1977).
Psychologically Disordered and Criminal Offenders: Perceptions of Their Volition and Responsibility (with Gloria L. Hood), 3 Criminal Justice & Behavior 123-134 (1976).
New Roles for Psychologists, 1 Criminal Justice & Behavior 190-192 (1974).
Abolish the Insanity Defense?—Not Yet, 26 Rutgers Law Review 719-740 (1973).

Reports & Datasets

Crime and Mental Disorder (with Henry J. Steadman) National Institute of Justice (1984).
Statement, The Insanity Defense US Government Print Office 470-479 (1982).
Testimony, Insanity Defense in Federal Courts US Government Print Office 87-94 (1982).
Statement, Early Identification and Classification of Juvenile Delinquents US Government Print Office 2-31 (1981).

Op-Eds, Blogs, Shorter Works

The Challenge of Preventing Violence Is Not Just an American Problem (with Jeffrey W. Swanson), Guardian 2 (April 22, 2007).
Mandated Treatment in the Community for People with Mental Disorders (with Richard J. Bonnie & Marvin S. Swartz), Health Affairs 28-38 (September, 2003).
A Case in Point, 34 Contemporary Psychology 1048 (1989).
The Prediction of Violent Behavior, Virginia Law School Report 9-12 (1982).
Delivering Community Mental Health Services to a County Jail Population: A Research Note (with Leah B. McDonough), 8 American Academy of Psychiatry & the Law Bulletin 28-32 (1980).

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