John T. Monahan

  • John S. Shannon Distinguished Professor of Law
  • Professor of Psychology
  • Professor of Psychiatry and Neurobehavioral Sciences

John Monahan, a psychologist, teaches and writes about how courts use behavioral science evidence, violence risk assessment, criminology and mental health law. He is a member of the National Academy of Medicine and of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and has served on the National Research Council. Monahan was the founding president of the American Psychological Association’s Division of Psychology and Law and has been a fellow of the John Simon Guggenheim Foundation and the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences. He also has been a visiting fellow at several law schools — including Harvard, Stanford, New York University and the University of California, Berkeley — as well as at the American Academy in Rome, and at All Souls College, Oxford. He twice directed research networks for the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation. In 1997, he received an honorary law degree from the City University of New York.

Monahan is the author or editor of 17 books and more than 300 articles and chapters. His work has been cited more than 30,000 times. One of his books, Social Science in Law, co-authored with Laurens Walker, is now in its ninth edition and has been translated into Chinese. Two of his other books won the Manfred Guttmacher Award of the American Psychiatric Association for outstanding research in law and psychiatry. Monahan’s work has been cited frequently by courts, including the California Supreme Court in the landmark case of Tarasoff v. Regents, and the U.S. Supreme Court in Barefoot v. Estelle, in which he was referred to as “the leading thinker on the issue” of violence risk assessment.

Scholarship Profile: Mental Health Law’s “Leading Thinker” (Virginia Journal 1999)


  • Ph.D.
    Indiana University
  • B.A.
    State University of New York at Stony Brook


Social Science in Law: Cases and Materials (with Laurens Walker) (Foundation Press, 9th ed. 2018).

Social Science in Law: Cases and Materials (with Laurens Walker) (Foundation Press, 8th ed. 2014).

Coercive Treatment in Psychiatry: Clinical, Legal and Ethical Aspects (editor with Thomas W. Kallert and Juan E. Mezzich) (Wiley-Blackwell, 2011).

Social Science in Law: Cases and Materials (with Laurens Walker) (Foundation Press, 7th ed. 2010).

An Introduction to Social Science in Law (with Laurens Walker) (Foundation Press, 2006).

Social Science in Law: Cases and Materials (with Laurens Walker) (Foundation Press, 6th ed. 2006).

Adjudicative Competence: The MacArthur Studies (with others) (Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, 2002).

Social Science in Law: Cases and Materials (with Laurens Walker) (Foundation Press, 1985; 2d ed. 1990; 3d ed. 1994; 4th ed. 1998; 5th ed. 2002).

Rethinking Risk Assessment: The MacArthur Study of Mental Disorder and Violence (with others) (Oxford U. Press, 2001).

Research in Community and Mental Health, Vol. 10: Coercion in Mental Health Services -- International Perspectives (ed. with J. Morrissey) (Connecticut: JAI Press, 1999). 

Mental Disorder, Work Disability, and the Law (ed. with Richard J. Bonnie) (U. of Chicago Press, 1997).

Coercion and Aggressive Community Treatment: A New Frontier in Mental Health Law(ed. with Deborah L. Dennis) (Plenum Press, 1996). 

Violence and Mental Disorder: Developments in Risk Assessment (ed. with Henry J. Steadman) (U. of Chicago Press, 1994).

Children, Mental Health, and the Law (ed. with N. Dickon Reppucci, Lois A. Weithorn, and Edward P. Mulvey) (Sage Publications, 1984). 

Mentally Disordered Offenders: Perspectives from Law and Social Science (ed. with Henry J. Steadman) (Plenum Press, 1983). 

The Clinical Prediction of Violent Behavior (National Institute of Mental Health, 1981). Reprinted as Predicting Violent Behavior: An Assessment of Clinical Techniques (Sage Publications, 1981). Excerpts reprinted in 1 Violent Behavior 125-150, 259-279 (Leonard J. Hertzberg et al., eds.) (PMA Publishing, 1990). 

Who Is the Client? The Ethics of Psychological Intervention in the Criminal Justice System(editor) (American Psychological Association, 1980). 

Prevention in Mental Health: Research, Policy and Practice (ed. with Richard H. Price, Richard F. Ketterer & Barbara C. Bader) (Sage Publications, 1980). 

Book Chapters/Multi-Author Works:

"Judicial Appraisals of Risk Assessment in Sentencing" (with Brandon Garrett) (2018).

“Risk Assessment in Sentencing,” in Erik Luna, ed., 4 Reforming Criminal Justice: Punishment, Incarceration, and Release 77 (Academy for Justice, 2017).

“Violence Risk Assessment: The State of the Science” (with Jennifer L. Skeem) in Richard Rosner & Charles L. Scott, eds., Principles and Practice of Forensic Psychiatry 713 (CRC Press, 3d ed. 2017).

“Predicting Non-Familial Major Physical Violent Crime Perpetration in the U.S. Army from Administrative Data” (with others), 46 Psychol. Med. 303 (2016).

“Psychosis Uncommonly and Inconsistently Precedes Violence Among High-Risk Individuals” (with others), 4 Clinical Psychol. Sci. 40 (2016).

“Developing a Risk Model to Target High-Risk Preventive Interventions for Sexual Assault Victimization among Female U.S. Army Soldiers” (with others), 4 Clinical Psychol. Sci. 939 (2016).

“Evidence-Based Sentencing: Public Openness and Opposition to Using Gender, Age, and Race as Risk Factors for Recidivism” (with Nicholas Scurich), 40 Law & Hum. Behav. 36 (2016).

“Gatekeeping Science: Using the Structure of Scientific Research to Distinguish Between Admissibility and Weight in Expert Testimony” (with David L. Faigman and Christopher Slobogin), 110 Nw. U. L. Rev. 859 (2016).

"Risk Assesment in Sentencing" (with Erik Lund) 

“Legal Process and Social Science: United States,” in James D. Wright, ed., 13 International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences 767 (Elsevier, 2d ed. 2015).

"Gender, Risk Assessment, and Sanctioning: The Cost of Treating Women Like Men," (with Jennifer Skeem and Christopher Lowenkamp), 40 Law & Hum. Behav. 580 (2016).

"Gun Violence and Victimization of Strangers by Person with a Mental Illness: Data from the Macarthur Violence Risk Assessment Study" (with others).

“Afterword,” in Christopher D. Webster et al., Violence Risk Assessment and Management: Advances Through Structured Professional Judgement and Sequential Redirections 195 (Wiley Blackwell, 2d ed. 2014).

“Dangerousness” (with others), in John Gunn & Pamela J. Taylor, eds., Forensic Psychiatry: Clinical, Legal, and Ethical Issues 529 (CRC Press, 2014).

“The Inclusion of Biological Risk Factors in Violence Risk Assessments,” in Ilina Singh et al., eds., Bioprediction, Biomarkers, and Bad Behavior: Scientific, Legal, and Ethical Challenges 57 (Oxford University Press, 2014).

“Violence Risk Assessment, in Randy K. Otto, ed., Handbook of Psychology, Vol. 11: Forensic Psychology 541 (Wiley, 2d ed. 2013).

“Extending Violence Reduction Principles to Justice-Involved Persons with Mental Illness” (with Henry J. Steadman), in Joel A. Dvoskin et al., eds., Using Social Science to Reduce Violent Offending 245 (Oxford University Press, 2012).

"Mandated Psychiatric Treatment in the Community—Forms, Prevalence, Outcomes and Controversies,” in Thomas W. Kallert et al., eds., Coercive Treatment in Psychiatry: Clinical, Legal and Ethical Aspects 33 (Wiley-Blackwell, 2011).

“Violence and Mandated Community Treatment: The MacArthur Studies,” in Ian Needham et al., eds., Violence in Clinical Psychiatry: Proceedings of the 7th European Congress on Violence in Clinical Psychiatry 34-38 (Kavanah, 2011).

"Assessing Outcomes for Consumers in New York's Assisted Outpatient Treatment Program" (with others), 61 Psychiatric Serv. 976 (2010).

"The Classification of Violence Risk," in Randy K. Otto & Kevin S. Douglas, eds.,Handbook of Violence Assessment 187 (Routledge, 2010).

"Cultural Cognition and Public Policy: The Case of Outpatient Commitment Laws" (with others), 34 Law & Hum. Behav. 118 (2010).

"The Scientific Status of Research on Clinical and Actuarial Predictions of Violence," in David Faigman et al. eds., Modern Scientific Evidence: The Law and Science of Expert Testimony. (West Information Pub. Group, 2007).

"The Future of Violence Risk Management," in Michael Tonry, ed., The Future of Imprisonment 237 (Oxford U. Press, 2004).

"Mandated Community Treatment: The Potential Role of Violence Risk Assessment," in Kate Diesfeld & Ian Frackelton, eds., Involuntary Detention and Therapeutic Jurisprudence: International Perspectives on Civil Commitment 455 (Ashgate, 2003).

"Prediction of Crime and Recidivism," in Joshua Dressler, ed., Encyclopedia of Crime and Justice 1125 (Macmillan Reference USA, 2d ed. 2002).

"The Scientific Status of Research on Clinical and Actuarial Predictions of Violence," in D. Faigman, D. Kaye, M. Saks & J. Sanders, eds., Modern Scientific Evidence: The Law and Science of Expert Testimony 423 (West Publishing Company, 2d ed. 2002).

"Major Mental Disorder and Violence: Epidemiology and Risk Assessment," in G. Pinard & L. Pagani, eds., Clinical Assessment of Dangerousness: Empirical Contributions 89 (Cambridge U. Press, 2001).

"Violence Risk Assessment: A Quarter Century of Research" (with Henry J. Steadman), in Lynda E. Frost & Richard J. Bonnie, eds., The Evolution of Mental Health Law 195 (American Psychological Association, 2001).

"'Dangerousness': Violence Risk Assessment," in A. Kazdin, ed., Encyclopedia of Psychology (Oxford U. Press, 2000).

"Foreward" to S. Blumenthal and T. Lavender, Violence and Mental Disorder (Hereford, England: The Zito Trust, 2000).

"Reducing Violence Risk: Diagnostically Based Clues from the MacArthur Violence Risk Assessment Study" (with P. Appelbaum), in S. Hodgins, ed., Effective Prevention of Crime and Violence Among the Mentally Ill 19 (Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2000).

"Violence and Mental Disorder: Recent Research," in M. Crowner & D. Bernay, eds.,Understanding and Treating Aggressive Psychiatric Patients 167 (American Psychiatric Press, 2000). 

"Coercion in the Provision of Mental Health Services: The MacArthur Studies" (with others), in J. Morrissey & John Monahan, eds., Research in Community and Mental Health, Vol. 10: Coercion in Mental Health Services -- International Perspectives 13 (JAI Press, 1999). 

"Clinical and Actuarial Predictions of Violence," in David L. Faigman et al., eds., 1 Modern Scientific Evidence: The Law and Science of Expert Testimony 300 (West, 1997).

"Epilogue" (with Richard J. Bonnie) to Mental Disorder, Work Disability, and the Law 299 (Richard J. Bonnie & John Monahan eds., U. of Chicago Press 1997).

"Major Mental Disorders and Violence to Others," in D. Stoff, J. Breiling, and J. Maser, eds., Handbook of Antisocial Behavior 92 (John Wiley and Sons, 1997).

"Coercion to Inpatient Treatment: Initial Results and Implications for Assertive Treatment in the Community" (with others), in Deborah L. Dennis & John Monahan, eds., Coercion and Aggressive Community Treatment: A New Frontier in Mental Health Law 13 (Plenum Press, 1996).

"Designing a New Generation of Risk Assessment Research" (with others), in John Monahan & Henry J. Steadman, eds., Violence and Mental Disorder: Developments in Risk Assessment 297 (U. Chicago Press, 1994). 

"Toward a Rejuvenation of Risk Assessment Research" (with Henry J. Steadman), in John Monahan & Henry J. Steadman, eds., Violence and Mental Disorder: Developments in Risk Assessment 1 (U. Chicago Press, 1994). 

"Prediction of Criminal Behavior: Recent Developments in Research and Policy in the United States," in Hermann Wegener et al., eds., Criminal Behavior and the Justice System: Psychological Perspectives 40 (Springer-Verlag, 1989). 

"Foreword" to Clinical Treatment of the Violent Person xv (Loren H. Roth ed., Guilford Press 1987). 

"Police and the Mentally Disordered" (with Brian Monahan), in John C. Yuille, ed., Police Selection and Training: The Role of Psychology 175 (Nijhoff, 1986). 

"Evaluating Potentially Violent Persons," in Charles Patrick Ewing, ed., Psychology, Psychiatry, and the Law: A Clinical and Forensic Handbook 9 (Professional Resource Exchange, 1985). 

"Identifying and Treating the Mentally Disordered Prison Inmate" (with Eliot Hartstone, Henry J. Steadman, & Pamela Clark Robbins), in Linda A. Teplin, ed., Mental Health and Criminal Justice 279 (Sage Publications, 1984). 

"Ethical Issues in Prediction of Criminal Violence," in Robert F. Boruch & Joe S. Cecil, eds., Solutions to Ethical and Legal Problems in Social Research 83 (Academic Press, 1983). 

"Individual-Process Consultation" (with Kenneth Heller), in Saul Cooper & William F. Hodges, eds., The Mental Health Consultation Field 57 (Human Sciences Press, 1983). 

"Mentally Disordered Sex Offenders" (with Sharon Kantorowski Davis), in John Monahan & Henry J. Steadman, eds., Mentally Disordered Offenders: Perspectives from Llaw and Social Science 191 (Plenum Press, 1983). 

"Prediction of Crime and Recidivism," in Sanford H. Kadish, ed., 3 Encyclopedia of Crime and Justice 1170 (Free Press, 1983). 

"The Prediction of Violent Behavior: Developments in Psychology and Law," in C. James Scheirer & Barbara L. Hammonds, eds., Psychology and the Law 151 (American Psychological Association, 1983). 

"Prisoners Transferred to Mental Hospitals" (with Sharon Kantorowski Davis, Eliot Hartstone, & Henry J. Steadman), in John Monahan & Henry J. Steadman, eds., Mentally Disordered Offenders: Perspectives from Law and Social Science 233 (Plenum Press, 1983). 

"Childhood Predictors of Adult Criminal Behavior," in Fernand N. Dutile et al., eds., Early Childhood Intervention and Juvenile Delinquency 11 (Lexington Books, 1982). 

"Situational Approaches to Understanding and Predicting Individual Violent Behavior" (with Dierdre Klassen), in Marvin E. Wolfgang & Neil Alan Weiner, eds., Criminal Violence 292 (Sage Publications, 1982). 

"Three Lingering Issues in Patient Rights," in Bernard L. Bloom & Shirley J. Asher, eds.,Psychiatric Patient Rights and Patient Advocacy: Issues and Evidence 261 (Human Sciences Press, 1982). 

"Identifying Chronic Criminals," in David A. Ward & Kenneth F. Schoen, eds., Confinement in Maximum Custody 3 (Lexington Books, 1981). 


“Predicting Violent Behavior: What Can Neuroscience Add?” (with others), 22 Trends Cognitive Sci. 111 (2018).

“Age, Risk Assessment, and Sanctioning: Overestimating the Old, Underestimating the Young” (with Jennifer Skeem and Christopher Lowenkamp), 41 Law & Hum. Behav. 191 (2017).

“Predicting Sexual Assault Perpetration in the US Army Using Administrative Data” (with others), 53 Am. J. Preventive Med. 661 (2017).

“Sexual Assault Victimization and Mental Health Treatment, Suicide Attempts, and Career Outcomes Among Women in the US Army” (with others), 107 Am. J. Pub. Health 732 (2017).

“Using Administrative Data to Identify U.S. Army Soldiers at High-Risk of Perpetrating Minor Violent Crimes” (with others), 84 J. Psychiatric Res. 128 (2017).

“Using Self-Report Surveys at the Beginning of Service to Develop Multi-Outcome Risk Models for New Soldiers in the U.S. Army” (with others), 47 Psychol. Med. 2275 (2017).

“Violence to Others, Violent Self-Victimization, and Violent Victimization by Others Among Persons with a Mental Illness” (with others), 68 Psychiatric Serv. 516 (2017).

"Evidence-Based Sentencing: Public Openness and Opposition to Using Gender, Age, and Race as Risk Factors for Recidivism" (with Nicholas Scurich), 40 Law & Hum. Behav. 36 (2016).

"Gatekeeping Science: Using the Structure of Scientific Research to Distinguish Between Admissibility and Weight in Expert Testimony" (with David L. Faigman and Christopher Slobogin), Nw. U. L. Rev (2016).

“Psychosis Uncommonly and Inconsistently Precedes Violence Among HighRisk Individuals” (with others), 4 Clinical Psychol. Sci. 40 (2016).

"The Individual Risk Assessment of Terrorism: Recent Developments", in Gary LaFree & Joshua D. Freilich, eds., The Handbook of the Criminology of Terrorism 520 (Wiley & Sons, 2016).

"Risk Assesment in Sentencing" (with Erik Lund), Virginia Public Law and Legal Research. (2017)

"Risk Assessment in Criminal Sentencing" (with Jennifer L. Skeem), 12 Ann. Rev. Clinical Psychol. 489 (2016).

“Gun Violence and Victimization of Strangers by Persons with a Mental Illness: Data from the MacArthur Violence Risk Assessment Study” (with others), 66 Psychiatric Serv. 1238 (2015).

"Risk Redux: The Resurgence of Risk Assessment in Criminal Sanctioning" (with Jennifer L. Skeem).

“The Evolution of Violence Risk Assessment” (with Jennifer L. Skeem), 19 CNS Spectrums 419 (2014).

“Group to Individual (G2i) Inference in Scientific Expert Testimony” (with David L. Faigman and Christopher Slobogin), 81 U. Chi. L. Rev. 417 (2014)

“Risk Redux: The Resurgence of Risk Assessment in Criminal Sanctioning” (with Jennifer L. Skeem), 26 Fed. Sent’g Rep. 158 (2014).

“The Cost of Assisted Outpatient Treatment: Can It Save States Money?” (with others), 170 Am. J. Psychiatry 1423 (2013).

"Gangs, Violence, and Psychiatry," 170 Am. J. Psychiatry 942 (2013).

"Violent Behavior and Gender of Swedish Psychiatric Patients: A Prospective Clinical Study" (with Joakim Sturup and Marianne Kristiansson), 64 Psychatric Serv. 688 (2013).

“The Individual Risk Assessment of Terrorism,” 18 Psych. Pub. Pol. & L. 167 (2012).

“Innumeracy and Unpacking: Bridging the Nomothetic/Idiographic Divide in Violence Risk Assessment” (with Nicholas Scurich and Richard S. John), 36 Law & Hum. Behav. 548 (2012).

“The ASA’s Missed Opportunity to Promote Sound Science in Court” (with Gregory Mitchell and Laurens Walker), 40 Soc. Methods & Res. 605 (2011).

“Beyond Context: Social Facts as Case-Specific Evidence” (with Gregory Mitchell and Laurens Walker), 60 Emory L.J. 1109 (2011).
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“Case-Specific Sociological Inference: Metanorms for Expert Opinions” (with Gregory Mitchell and Laurens Walker), 40 Soc. Methods & Res. 668 (2011).

“Current Directions in Violence Risk Assessment” (with Jennifer L. Skeem), 20 Current Directions Psychol. Sci. 38 (2011).

From Coercion to Contract: Reframing the Debate on Mandated Community Treatment for People with Mental Disorders" (with Richard J. Bonnie), Law & Hum. Behav.(forthcoming).

“Interventions by Virginia’s Colleges to Respond to Student Mental Health Crises” (with Richard J. Bonnie, Susan M. Davis, and Christopher Flynn), 62 Psychiatric Serv. 1439 (2011).

"Twenty-Five Years of Social Science in Law," (with Laurens Walker), 35 Law & Hum. Behav. 72 (2011).

“The Limits of Social Framework Evidence” (with Laurens Walker and Gregory Mitchell), 8 Law, Probability & Risk 307 (2009).

"Lawyers at the Peak of Their Careers: A 30-Year Longitudinal Study of Job and Life Satisfaction" (with Jeffrey W. Swanson)

“Perceived Coercion to Treatment and Housing Satisfaction in Housing-First and Supportive Housing Programs” (with Pamela Clark Robbins and Lisa Callahan), 60Psychiatric Serv. 1251 (2009).

“Racial Disparities in Involuntary Outpatient Commitment: Are They Real?” (with others), 28 Health Aff. 816 (2009).

“Standards of Legal Admissibility and Their Implications for Psychological Science” (with David L. Faigman), in Jennifer L. Skeem et al., eds., Psychological Science in the Courtroom: Controversies and Consensus 3 (Guilford Press, 2009).

“Substance Use, Symptom, and Employment Outcomes of Persons with a Workplace Mandate for Chemical Dependency Treatment” (with others), 60 Psychiatric Serv. 646 (2009).

“Understanding and Applying Virginia’s New Statutory Civil Commitment Criteria” (with Bruce J. Cohen and Richard J. Bonnie), 28 Dev. Mental Health L. 127 (2009).
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"Lawyers at Mid-Career: A 20-Year Longitudinal Study of Job and Life Satisfaction," (with Jeffrey Swanson), 6 J. Empirical Legal Stud. 451 (2009).

"Mandated Community Treatment: Applying Leverage to Achieve Adherence," J. Am. Acad. Psychiatry & L. 282 (2008).

"Contextual Evidence of Gender Discrimination: The Ascendance of 'Social Frameworks,'” (with Laurens Walker & Gregory Mitchell), 94 Va. L. Rev. 1715 (2008).
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"Computer-Assisted Violence Risk Assessment among People with Mental Disorder," in David Canter & Rita Žukauskienė, eds., Psychology and Law: Bridging the Gap 211 (Ashgate Publishing Limited, 2008).

“Patterns of Practice in Mental Health Courts: A National Survey” (with others), 30 Law & Hum. Behav. 347 (2006).

"Alternative Pathways to Violence in Persons with Schizophrenia: The Role of Childhood Antisocial Behavior Problems" (with others), 32 Law & Hum. Behav. 228 (2008).

“The Function of Punishment in the ‘Civil’ Commitment of Sexually Violent Predators” (with Kevin M. Carlsmith and Alison Evans), 25 Behav. Sci. & L. 437 (2007).

“Sampling Evidence at the Crossroads” (with Laurens Walker), 80 S. Cal. L. Rev. 969 (2007).
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“Perceived Dangerousness and Support for Coerced Treatment for Children with Mental Health Problems” (with others), 58 Psychiatric Services 619 (2007). 

“A Judges’ Guide to Using Social Science” (with L. Walker), 43 Court Review 156 (2007).

“The Classification of Violence Risk” (with others), 24 Behav. Sci. & L. 721 (2006).

“A Jurisprudence of Risk Assessment: Forecasting Harm among Prisoners, Predators, and Patients,” 92 Va. L. Rev. 391 (2006).
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“Tarasoff at Thirty: How Developments in Science and Policy Shape the Common Law,” 75 U. Cin. L. Rev. 497 (2006).
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“Gender, Threat/Control-Override Delusions and Violence” (with Brent Teasdale & Eric Silver), 30 Law & Hum. Behav. 649 (2006).

“An Actuarial Model of Violence Risk Assessment for Persons with Mental Disorders” (with others), 56 Psychiatric Serv. 810 (2005). 

“From Coercion to Contract: Reframing the Debate on Mandated Community Treatment for People with Mental Disorders” (with Richard J. Bonnie), 29 Law & Hum. Behav. 485 (2005). 

“From Referral to Disposition: Case Processing in Seven Mental Health Courts” (with others), 23 Behav. Sci. & L. 215 (2005). 

“Involuntary Examinations for Danger to Others in Florida Following the Attacks of September 11, 2001” (with others), 56 Psychiatric Serv. 858 (2005).

“Psychological Evidence at the Dawn of the Law’s Scientific Age” (with David L. Faigman), 56 Ann. Rev. Psychology 631 (2005). 

“The Second Generation of Mental Health Courts” (with others), 11 Psych. Pub. Pol’y & L.527 (2005). 

“Use of Leverage to Improve Adherence to Psychiatric Treatment in the Community” (with others), 56 Psychiatric Services 37 (2005). 

“Using a Five Factor Lens to Explore the Relation between Personality Traits and Violence in Psychiatric Patients” (with others), 73 J. Consulting and Clinical Psychol. 455 (2005).

“License as Leverage: Mandating Treatment for Professionals” (with Richard Bonnie), 3Int’l J. Forensic Mental Health 131 (2004).

“A Multiple Models Approach to Violence Risk Assessment among People with Mental Disorder” (with others), 31 Crim. Just. & Behav. 324 (2004).

“Endorsement of Personal Benefit of Outpatient Commitment among Persons with Severe Mental Illness” (with Marvin S. Swartz & Jeffrey W. Swanson), 9 Psychol. Pub. Pol’y & L.70 (2003).

“Mandated Community Treatment” (issue editor with John Petrila), 21 Dev. Mental Health411 (2003).

"Communicating Violence Risk:  Frequency Formats, Vivid Outcomes, and Forensic Settings" (with others), 1 Int'l J. Forensic Mental Health 121 (2002).

"Psychopathy, Treatment Involvement, and Subsequent Violence Among Civil Psychiatric Patients" (with J. Skeem & E. Mulvey), 26 Law & Hum. Behav. 577 (2002).

"Mandated Community Treatment: Beyond Outpatient Commitment" (with others), 52 Psychiatric Serv. 1198 (2001).

"Special Section on Involuntary Outpatient Commitment: Introduction" (with Marvin S. Swartz), 52 Psychiatric Serv. 323 (2001).

"Could 'Law and Evolution' Be the Next 'Law and Economics'?” 8 Va. J. Soc. Pol’y & L.123 (2000).
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"A Classification Tree Approach to the Development of Actuarial Violence Risk Assessment Tools" (with others), 24 Law & Hum. Behav. 83 (2000).

"Developing a Clinically Useful Actuarial Tool for Assessing Violence Risk" (with others), 176 Brit. J. of Psychiatry 312 (2000).

"Psychological Science Can Improve Diagnostic Decisions" (with others), 1 Psychol. Sci. in the Pub. Int. 1 (2000). Adapted as "Better Decisions Through Science," 283 Sci. Am. 82 (2000).

"Scientific Authority: The Breast-Implant Litigation and Beyond" (with Laurens Walker), 86Va. L. Rev. 801 (2000).
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"Sources of Coercive Behaviors in Psychiatric Admissions" (with others), 101 Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 73 (2000). 

"Violence and Delusions: Data from the MacArthur Violence Risk Assessment Study" (with others), 157 Am. J. Psychiatry 566 (2000).

"Violence Risk Assessment: Scientific Validity and Evidentiary Admissibility," 57 Wash. & Lee L. Rev. 901 (2000).
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"Violence Risk Assessment and Risk Communication: The Effects of Using Actual Cases, Providing Instruction, and Employing Probability versus Frequency Formats" (with others), 24 Law & Hum. Behav. 271 (2000).

"Violent Thoughts and Violent Behavior Following Hospitalization for Mental Disorder" (with others), 68 J. Consulting and Clinical Psychology 388 (2000). 

"Assessing Violence Risk among Discharged Psychiatric Patients: Toward an Ecological Approach" (with others), 23 Law & Hum. Behav. 235 (1999).

"Patients’ Revisions of Their Beliefs about the Need for Hospitalization" (with others), 156Am. J. Psychiatry 1385 (1999).

"The Public's View of the Competence, Dangerousness and Need for Legal Coercion Among Persons With Mental Illness" (with others), 89 Am. J. Pub. Health 1339 (1999).

"Real in Their Consequences: A Sociological Approach to Understanding the Association between Psychotic Symptoms and Violence" (with others), 64 Am. Soc. Rev. 316 (1999).

"Sampling Liability" (with Laurens Walker), 85 Va. L. Rev. 329 (1999).
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"The Competence-Related Abilities of Women Criminal Defendants" (with others), 26 J. Am. Acad. Psychiatry & L. 215 (1998).

"Factual Sources of Mental Patients' Perceptions of Coercion in the Hospital Admission Process" (with others), 155 Am. J. Psychiatry 1254 (1998).

"Family, Clinician, and Patient Perceptions of Coercion in Mental Hospital Admission: A Comparative Sstudy" (with others), 21 Int'l J. L. & Psychiatry 1 (1998).

"Psychometric Properties of the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool-Criminal Adjudication" (with others), 20 Psychol. Assessment 435 (1998).

"Sampling Damages" (with Laurens Walker), 83 Iowa L. Rev. 545 (1998). Reprinted in R. Klonoff and E. Bilich, eds., Class Actions and Other Multi-Party Litigation: Cases and Materials 822-826, (West Group, 2000).
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"Violence by People Discharged from Acute Psychiatric Inpatient Facilities and by Others in the Same Neighborhoods" (with others), 55 Archives of General Psychiatry 393 (1998).

"Actuarial Support for the Clinical Assessment of Violence Risk," 9 Int'l Rev. Psychiatry167 (1997).

"Law School Performance Predicted by Explanatory Style" (with Jason M. Satterfield and Martin E.P. Seligman), 15 Behav. Sci. & L. 95 (1997).

"The MacArthur Adjudicative Competence Study: A Comparison of Criteria for Assessing the Competence of Criminal Defendants" (with others), 25 J. Am. Acad. Psychiatry & L.249 (1997).

"The MacArthur Adjudicative Competence Study: Development and Validation of a Research Instrument" (with others), 21 Law & Hum. Behav. 141 (1997).

"The MacArthur Adjudicative Competence Study: Diagnosis, Psychopathology, and Competence-Related Abilities" (with others), 15 Behav. Sci. & L. 329 (1997).

"Perceptions of Coercion in the Admission of Voluntary and Involuntary Psychiatric Patients" (with others), 20 Int'l J. L. & Psychiatry 167 (1997).

"The Validity of Mental Patients' Accounts of Coercion-Related Behaviors in the Hospital Admission Process" (with others), 21 Law & Hum. Behav. 361 (1997).

"Daubert and the Reference Manual: An Essay on the Future of Science in Law" (with Laurens Walker), 82 Va. L. Rev. 837 (1996).
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"Decision-Making in Criminal Defense: An Empirical Study of Insanity Pleas and the Impact of Doubted Client Competence" (with others), 87 J. Crim. L. & Criminology 48 (1996).
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"Mental Illness and Violent Crime: A Summary of a Presentation," 4 pp. (National Institute of Justice, 1996).

"Psychotic Symptoms and Disorders and the Risk of Violent Behaviour in the Community" (with others), 6 Crim. Behav. & Mental Health 309 (1996).

"Violence Prediction: The Past Twenty and the Next Twenty Years," 23 Crim. Justice & Behavior 107 (1996).

"Coercion and Commitment: Understanding Involuntary Mental Hospital Admission" (with others), 18 Int'l J. L. & Psychiatry 249 (1995). 

"Perceived Coercion in Mental Hospital Admission: Pressures and Process" (with others), 52 Archives Gen. Psychiatry 1034 (1995). 

"Probability, Danger, and Coercion: A Study of Risk Perception and Decision Making in Mental Health Law" (with Paul Slovic), 19 Law & Hum. Behav. 49 (1995). 

"The Causes of Violence," FBI Law Enforcement Bull., Jan. 1994, at 11-15. 

"Client Abilities to Assist Counsel and Make Decisions in Criminal Cases: Findings from Three Studies" (with others), 18 Law & Hum. Behav. 437 (1994). 

"Judicial Use of Social Science Research" (with Laurens Walker), 15 Law & Hum. Behav.571 (1991). Revised version printed in 2 Shepard's Expert & Sci. Evid. Q. 327 (1994). 

"Ethical and Legal Duties in Conducting Research on Violence: Lessons from the MacArthur Risk Assessment Study" (with others), 8 Violence & Victims 387 (1993). 

"Inclusion, Motivation, and Good Faith: The Morality of Coercion in Mental Hospital Admission" (with others), 13 Dev.Mental Health (1993). 
HeinOnline (PDF)

"Limiting Therapist Exposure to Tarasoff Liability: Guidelines for Risk Containment," 48Am. Psychologist 242 (1993). 

"Patient, Family, and Staff Perceptions of Coercion in Mental Hospital Admission: An Exploratory Study" (with others), 13 Dev.Mental Health (1993). 
HeinOnline (PDF)

"Two Scales for Measuring Patients' Perceptions for Coercion During Mental Hospital Admission" (with others), 11 Behav. Sci. & L. 307 (1993). 

"Attorney-Client Making in Criminal Cases: Client Competence and Participation as Perceived by Their Attorneys" (with others), 10 Behav. Sci. & L. 385 (1992). 

"Mental Disorder and Violent Behavior: Perceptions and Evidence," 47 Am. Psychol. 511 (1992). 

"Risk Assessment: Commentary on Poythress and Otto," 5 Forensic Rep. 151 (1992). 

"Schizophrenia as a Contingent Risk Factor for Criminal Violence" (with Carmen Cirincione, Henry J. Steadman, & Pamela Clark Robbins), 15 Int'l J. L. & Psychiatry 347 (1992). 

"'A Terror to Their Neighbors': Beliefs about Mental Disorder and Violence in Historical and Cultural Perspective," 20 Bull. Am. Acad. Psychiatry & L. 191 (1992). 

"Empirical Questions without Empirical Answers" (with Laurens Walker),569 Wis. L. Rev.(1991).
HeinOnline (PDF) 

"Violence in the Workplace," 32 J. Occupational Med. 1021 (1990). 

"Dangerousness and Commitment of the Mentally Disordered in the United States" (with Saleem A. Shah), 15 Schizophrenia Bull. 541 (1989). 

"Risk Assessment of Violence among the Mentally Disordered: Generating Useful Knowledge," 11 Int'l J. L. & Psychiatry 249 (1988). 

"Social Facts: Scientific Methodology as Legal Precedent" (with Laurens Walker), 76 Cal. L. Rev. 877 (1988). 
HeinOnline (PDF)

"Social Science Research in Law: A New Paradigm" (with Laurens Walker), 43 Am. Psychol. 465 (1988). 

"Psychologists as Law Professors" (with Gary B. Melton & Michael J. Saks), 42 Am. Psychol. 502 (1987). 

"Social Frameworks: A New Use of Social Science in Law" (with Laurens Walker), 73 Va. L. Rev. 559 (1987). 
HeinOnline (PDF)

"Dangerous and Violent Behavior," 1 State Art Rev.: Occupational Med. 559 (1986). 

"Psychiatric Evaluations of Police Referrals in a General Hospital Emergency Room" (with Henry J. Steadman, Joseph P. Morrissey, & Jeraldine Braff), 8 Int'l J. L. & Psychiatry 39 (1986). 

"Social Authority: Obtaining, Evaluating, and Establishing Social Science in Law" (with Laurens Walker), 134 U. Pa. L. Rev. 477 (1986). 
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