This paper examines encryption through each of the five frames of reference. It first summarizes the particular frame’s general perspective on end-to-end encryption. Then it evaluates the current views of relevant US actors in the framework, including both government officials and private actors. Finally, it describes international discussions (if any) that already have transpired within the given framework, considers existing models for future encryption discussions that might arise in that framework, and identifies some factors that may drive the outcomes in that framework. These forecasts are necessarily speculative, given that many states continue domestically to struggle to decide their positions on encryption.

Ashley S. Deeks, The International Legal Dynamics of Encryption, Lawfare (October 12, 2016).