On September 24, 2021, Canadian authorities released Meng Wanzhou, Chief Financial Officer of Huawei Technologies and daughter of its founder, to China after she entered a Deferred Prosecution Agreement (DPA) with the U.S. Justice Department (DOJ) on charges of violating U.S. sanctions on Iran. At the request of the United States, Canadian authorities arrested Meng in December 2018 and subsequently held her under house arrest in Vancouver. Meng fought extradition to the United States, and the case became a major source of friction between China, the United States, and Canada. Shortly after Meng’s detention, China arrested two Canadians in China, Michael Kovrig and Michael Spavor,in apparent retribution. Immediately after Meng’s return, China released the Canadians and also allowed two U.S. citizens, siblings Cynthia and Victor Liu, to return to the United States after preventing their departure with an exit ban since 2018. The incident has raised concerns about “hostage diplomacy,” and questions remain about whether the case’s resolution will help to stabilize or even improve tense relations between the United States and China.

Kristen Eichensehr, Huawei’s Meng Wanzhou Released to China After Entering into Deferred Prosecution Agreement with U.S. Justice Department, 116 American Journal of International Law, 184–189 (2022).
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