Richard J. Bonnie

  • Harrison Foundation Professor of Medicine and Law
  • Professor of Psychiatry and Neurobehavioral Sciences
  • Director, Institute of Law, Psychiatry and Public Policy
  • Professor of Public Policy, Frank Batten School of Leadership and Public Policy

Richard J. Bonnie is Harrison Foundation Professor of Medicine and Law and director of the Institute of Law, Psychiatry and Public Policy at the University of Virginia. He has co-authored leading textbooks on criminal law and public health law and has devoted special attention during his career to public policies relating to mental health and substance abuse. His first book, “The Marijuana Conviction: A History of Marijuana Prohibition in the United States” (1974) was republished in 1999 as a “drug policy classic.”

Bonnie has been involved in public service throughout his career.  Among other positions, he has been associate director of the National Commission on Marihuana and Drug Abuse (1971‑73) and secretary of the first National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse (1976‑80). He recently chaired a Commission on Mental Health Law Reform at the request of the chief justice of Virginia (2006-11) and is currently chairing an Expert Advisory Panel on Mental Health Reform for the Virginia General Assembly.

Bonnie was elected to the National Academy of Medicine in 1991 and has chaired more than a dozen studies for the National Academies on subjects ranging from elder mistreatment to underage drinking, including the landmark report, “Ending the Tobacco Problem: A Blueprint for the Nation” (2007). In 2017, he chaired a study on policies needed to address the opioid epidemic in the United States and is now chairing a study on using knowledge about adolescent development to advance the well-being of all adolescents regardless of social background.

Bonnie has ­served as an adviser to the American Psychiatric Association since 1979, received the APA’s Isaac Ray Award in 1998 for contributions to forensic psychiatry and special presidential commendations in 2003 and 2016 for service to American psychiatry. He has also served on three MacArthur Foundation research networks, including, most recently, Law and Neuroscience. He is also a consultant to the American Academy of Neurology’s Committee on Ethics, Law and Humanities.

Bonnie received the University of Virginia’s highest honor, the Thomas Jefferson Award, in 2007.

Full Publications List



  • LL.B.
    University of Virginia School of Law
  • B.A.
    Johns Hopkins University


Criminal Law: Cases and Materials (with Anne M. Coughlin, John C. Jeffries Jr., & Peter W. Low) (Foundation Press, 5th ed. 2015).

Public Health Law, Ethics and Policy: Cases and Materials (with R. Gaare-Bernheim) (Foundation Press, 2015).

Essentials of Public Health Ethics (with Ruth Gaare Bernheim, James F. Childress and Alan L. Melnick) (Jones and Bartlett, 2014).

Law Touched Our Hearts: A Generation Remembers Brown v. Board of Education (ed. with Mildred Wigfall Robinson) (Vanderbilt University Press, 2009).

The Trial of John W. Hinckley, Jr.: A Case Study in the Insanity Defense (Foundation Press, 3d ed. 2008).

Adjudicative Competence: The MacArthur Studies (with Norman G. Poythress, John Monahan, Randy Otto, & Steven K. Hoge) (Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, 2002).

The Evolution of Mental Health Law (ed. with Lynda E. Frost) (American Psychological Association, 2001).

The Marijuana Conviction: The History of Marijuana Prohibition in the United States (with C.H. Whitebread, II) (Lindesmith Center Drug Policy Classic, 1999), republishing The Marihuana Conviction: The History of Marihuana Prohibition in the United States(University Press of Virginia, 1974).

Work Disability, Mental Disorder and The Law (ed. with John Monahan) (University of Chicago Press, 1997).

Marijuana Use and Criminal Sanctions: Essays on the Theory and Practice of Decriminalization (Michie/Bobbs-Merrill, 1980).

Psychiatrists and the Legal Process: Diagnosis and Debate (ed.) (Harvard Printing Office, 1977).

Legal Aspects of Drug Dependence (ed. with M. Sonnenreich) (C.R.C. Press, 1975).

National Academies Consensus Reports:

The Promise of Adolescence: Realizing Opportunity for All Youth (with E.P. Backes) (National Academies Press, 2019).

Pain Management and the Opioid Epidemic (with M.A. Ford and J. Phillips), (National Academies Press, 2017).

Public Health Implications of Raising the Minimum Age of Legal Access to for Tobacco Products (ed. with Kathleen Stratton & Leslie Y. Kwan), (National Academies Press, 2015).

Investing in the Health and Well-Being of Young Adults (with C. Stroud and H. Breiner), (National Academies Press, 2014).

Reforming Juvenile Justice: The Federal Role (with D. Talmage and J. Schuck) (National Academies Press, 2014).

Reforming Juvenile Justice: A Developmental Approach (ed. with B. Chemers and J. Schuck), (National Academies Press, 2013).

Ending the Tobacco Problem: Blueprint for the Nation (with K. Stratton and R. Wallace) (National Academies Press, 2007).

Reducing Underage Drinking: A Collective Responsibility (ed.with M. E. O’Connell) (National Academies Press, 2004).

Elder Mistreatment: Abuse, Neglect and Exploitation in an Aging America (ed. with Robert B. Wallace) (National Academies Press, 2002); also published in Japanese, 2009.

Reducing the Burden of Injury: Advancing Prevention and Treatment (ed. with Carolyn Fulco & Catharyn Liverman) (National Academies Press, 1999).

Growing Up Tobacco-Free: Preventing Nicotine Dependence in Children and Youths (ed. with B. Lynch) (National Academies Press, 1994).


“Determination of Death by Neurologic Criteria in the United States: The Case for Revising the Uniform Determination of Death Act” (with A. Lewis and T. Pope), 47 J. L. Med. & Ethics (2019).

“Fulfilling the Promise of Adolescence: Realizing Opportunity for All Youth” (with E.P. Backes, M. Alegria, A. Diaz, and C. d. Brindis), 65 J. Adolescent Health 440 (2019).

"Competence for Criminal Adjudication: The Emerging Significance of Decisional Competence," (2018).

“Decoding Guilty Minds: How Jurors Attribute Knowledge and Guilt(with others). 71 Vand. L. Rev. 241 (2018).
SSRN | HeinOnline (PDF)

“Lawful Physician-Hastened Death: AAN Position Statement” (with others), 90 Neurology 420 (2018).

“An Interdisciplinary Response to Contemporary Concerns about Brain Death Determination” (with others) 90 Neurology (2018).

“Personal Control over Decisions to Participate in Research by Persons with Histories of Both Substance Use Disorders and Criminal Justice Supervision” (with others), J. Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics (2018).

“Combined Effects of Peer Presence, Social Cues, and Rewards on Cognitive Control in Adolescents” (with others), 60 Developmental Psychobiology 292 (2018).

“Implementation and Effectiveness of Connecticut’s Risk-Based Gun Removal Law: Does it Prevent Suicides?" (with others), 80:2 L. & Contemp. Probs. 179 (2017).
SSRN | HeinOnline (PDF)

“Both Urgency and Balance Needed in Addressing Opioid Epidemic: A Report from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine” (with A.S. Kesselheim and D.J. Clark) 318 JAMA 423 (2017).

“At Risk of Being Risky: The Relationship Between “Brain Age” Under Emotional States and Risk Preference” (with others) 24 Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience 93 (2017).

“Predicting the Knowledge-Recklessness Distinction in the Human Brain(with others), Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2016).
SSRN | Article

“Mental Illness, Severe Emotional Distress and the Death Penalty: Reflections on the Tragic Case of Joe Giarratano,” 73 Wash. & Lee L. Rev. 1445 (2016).
SSRN | HeinOnline (PDF)

“Young Adulthood as a Transitional Legal Category: Science, Social Change and Justice Policy,” (with Elizabeth S. Scott and Laurence Steinberg), 85 Fordham L. Rev. 641 (2016).
SSRN | HeinOnline (PDF)

“The Sudden Collapse of Marijuana Prohibition: What Now?” U.C. Davis L. Rev. 50 U.C. Davis L. Rev. 573 (2016).
SSRN | HeinOnline (PDF)

“Parsing the Behavioral and Neural Mechanisms of Third-Party Punishment” (with others), 36 J. Neurosci. 9420 (2016).

“Extended Release Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Relapse in Criminal Justice Offenders” (with others), 174 New Eng. J. Med. 13 (2016).

“When Does a Juvenile Become and Adult? Implications for Law and Policy” (with A.O. Cohen, K. Taylor-Thompson and B.J. Casey), 88 Temp. L. Rev. 101 (2016).

“When is an Adolescent an Adult? Assessing Cognitive Control in Emotional and Non-Emotional Contexts” (with others), 88 Temp. L. Rev. 769 (2016).

“Advance Directives for Mental Health Care: Innovation in Law, Policy, and Practice” (with Heather Zelle and Kathleen Kemp), 66 Psychiatric Serv. 7 (2015).

“American Psychiatric Association: Position Statement on Firearm Access, Acts of Violence and the Relationship to Mental Illness and Mental Health Services” (with others), 33 Behav. Sci. & L. 195 (2015).

“The Constitutional Importance of Conforming to Accepted Professional Practice in Adjudicating Claims of Intellectual Disability in Capital Cases: A Comment on Hall v. Florida, 134 S. Ct. 1986 (2014),” Dev. Mental Health L., July 2015, at 9.
HeinOnline (PDF)

"Embedding Advance Directives in Routine Care for Persons with Serious Mental Illness: The Virginia Advance Directive Project" (with Heather Zelle and Kathleen Kemp),Psychiatric Services (2015).

“The Evolving Position of the American Psychiatric Association on Firearm Policy (1993–2014)” (with Paul S. Appelbaum and Debra A. Pinals), 33 Behav. Sci. & L.178 (2015).

“Resource Document on Access to Firearms by People with Mental Disorders” (with others), 33 Behav. Sci. & L. 186 (2015).

“The Impending Collision between First Amendment Protection for Commercial Speech and the Public Health: The Case of Tobacco Control,” 29 J. of Law and Politics 599 (2014).

“The Language of Mens Rea” (with others), 67 Vanderbilt L. Rev. 1327 (2014).

“Using Research Evidence to Reframe the Policy Debate around Mental Illness and Guns: Process and Recommendations” (with others), 104 Am. J. Pub. Health e22 (2014). 

“Abolition of the Insanity Defense Violates Due Process” (with Stephen J. Morse), 41 J. Am. Acad. Psychiatry & L. 488 (2013).

“Decisions to Initiate Involuntary Commitment: The Role of Intensive Community Services and Other Factors” (with others), 64 Psychiatric Serv. 120 (2013).

“A Survey of Stakeholder Knowledge, Experience, and Opinions of Advance Directives for Mental Health in Virginia” (with others), 40 Admin. & Pol’y Mental Health 232 (2013).

“The Teenage Brain: Adolescent Brain Research and the Law” (with Elizabeth S. Scott), 22 Current Directions Psychol. Sci. 158 (2013).

“Voting by Senior Citizens in Long-Term Care Facilities” (with Paul Freedman and Thomas M. Guterbock), 12 Election L.J. 293 (2013).

“Personalized Disclosure by Information-on-Demand: Attending to Patients’ Needs in the Informed Consent Process” (with Gil Siegal and Paul S. Appelbaum), 40 J.L. Med. & Ethics 359 (2012).
HeinOnline (PDF)

“Use of Longer Periods of Temporary Detention to Reduce Mental Health Civil Commitments” (with Tanya Nicole Wanchek), 63 Psychiatric Serv. 643 (2012).

“The Effect of Community Mental Health Services on Hospitalization Rates in Virginia” (with others), 62 Psychiatric Serv. 194 (2011).

“Interventions by Virginia’s Colleges to Respond to Student Mental Health Crises” (with John Monahan, Susan M. Davis, and Christopher Flynn), 62 Psychiatric Serv. 1439 (2011).

“Key Findings from the Virginia College Mental Health Survey,” Dev. Mental Health L., June 2011, at 7.

“A Systematic Examination of Smoke-Free Policies in Multiunit Dwellings in Virginia as Reported by Property Managers: Implications for Prevention” (with Shelly L. Jackson), 26Am. J. Health Promotion 37 (2011).

“Use of Advance Directives by People with Serious Mental Illness Under Virginia’s Health Care Decisions Act: Implementation of a Major Public Health Reform: Project Overview: December 31, 2010,” Dev. Mental Health L., March 2011, at 9.

"Howard Zonana and the Transformation of Forensic Psychiatry," 38 J. Am. Acad. Psychiatry & L. 570 (2010).

"Should a Personality Disorder Qualify as a Mental Disease in Insanity Adjudication?," 38J.L. Med. & Ethics 760 (2010).
SSRN | HeinOnline (PDF)

"The Virtues of Pragmatism in Drug Policy," 13 J. Health Care L. & Poly'y 7 (2010).
SSRN | HeinOnline (PDF)

"Mental Health System Transformation After The Virginia Tech Tragedy," (with James S. Reinhard, Phillip Hamilton & Elizabeth L. McGarvey) 28 Health Affairs 793 (2009).

"An Account of Collective Actions in Public Health" (with Gil Siegal & Neomi Siegal), Am. J. Public Health (2009).

“Responding to Requests from Adult Patients for Neuroenhancements: Guidance of the Ethics, Law and Humanities Committee” (with others), 73 Neurology 1406 (2009).

“Substance Use, Symptom, and Employment Outcomes of Persons with a Workplace Mandate for Chemical Dependency Treatment” (with others), 60 Psychiatric Serv. 646 (2009).

“Understanding and Applying Virginia’s New Statutory Civil Commitment Criteria” (with Bruce J. Cohen and John Monahan), 28 Dev. Mental Health L. 127 (2009).
HeinOnline (PDF)

“What I Learned When Massive Resistance Closed My School,” in Mildred Wigfall Robinson & Richard J. Bonnie, eds., Law Touched Our Hearts: A Generation RemembersBrown v. Board of Education 135 (Vanderbilt University Press, 2009).

"Workplace Mandates to Enter Chemical Dependency Treatment: Substance Use, Psychiatric Severity, and Employment Outcomes," (with Constance Weisner, Yun Lu, Agatha Hinman, John Monahan, Charles D. Moore, Felicia W. Chi & Paul S. Appelbaum) 60 Psychiatric Serv. 646 (2009).

"Legal Authority to Preserve Organs in Cases of Uncontrolled Cardiac Death: Preserving Family Choice" (with Stephanie Wright & Kelly K. Dineen), 34 J.L. Med. & Ethics 741 (2008).
HeinOnline (PDF) 

"The Impact of Modern Neuroscience on Treatment of Parolees: Ethical Considerations in Using Pharmacology to Prevent Addiction Relapse" (with Donna T. Chen & Charles P. O’Brien), Cerebrum, Nov./Dec. 2008.

“Identifying the Barriers and Challenges to Voting by Residents of Long-Term Care Facilities: A Study of the 2003 Philadelphia Mayor’s Race. Nursing Homes and Assisted Living Settings” (with J. Karlawish & P. Appelbaum, et al.) 20 J. Aging and Social Policy 65 (2008). 

"Panetti v. Quarterman: Mental Illness, the Death Penalty and Human Dignity," 5 Ohio St. J. Crim. L. 257 (2007).
HeinOnline (PDF)

"The Challenge of Implementing Atkins v. Virginia: How Legislatures and Courts Can Promote Accurate Assessments and Adjudications of Mental Retardation in Death Penalty Cases" (with K. Gustafson), 41 U. Rich. L. Rev. 811 (2007).
HeinOnline (PDF)

"Voting by Elderly Persons with Cognitive Impairment: Lessons from Other Democratic Nations" (with J. Karlawish), 38 McGeorge L. Rev. 879 (2007).
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"Terminating Artificial Nutrition and Hydration in PVS Patients: Current and Proposed State Laws" (with D. Larriviere), 66 Neurology 1624 (2006). 

"Policy Statement on Voting by Individuals with Dementia Residing in Long-Term Care Facilities" (with J. Karlawish, P. Appelbaum, & S. McConnell), 2 Alzheimer’s and Dementia243 (2006). 

"Closing the Organ Gap: A Reciprocity-Based Social Contract Approach" (with Gil Siegal), 34 J. L. Med. & Ethics 415 (2006).
HeinOnline (PDF)

"Judicially Mandated Naltrexone Use by Criminal Offenders: A Legal Analysis," 31 J. Substance Abuse Treatment 121 (2006). 

"Mentally Ill Prisoners on Death Row: Unsolved Puzzles for Courts and Legislatures," 54Cath. U. L. Rev. 1169 (2005).
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"Judicially Mandated Treatment with Naltrexone by Opiate-Addicted Criminal Offenders," 13 V. J. Soc.Pol'y & the L. 64 (2005).
HeinOnline (PDF)

“The Capacity to Vote of Persons with Alzheimer’s Disease” (with P. Appelbaum & J. Karlawish),162 Am. J. Psychiatry 2094 (2005).

"From Coercion to Contract: Reframing the Debate on Mandated Community Treatment for People with Mental Disorders" (with John Monahan), 29 Law & Hum. Behav. 485 (2005).

“The American Psychiatric Association’s Resource Document on Mental Retardation and Capital Sentencing: Implementing Atkins v. Virginia,” 32 J. Am. Acad. Psych. & L. 304 (2004); preprinted in 28 Mental & Physical Disability L. Rep. 11 (2004).
HeinOnline (PDF)

“License as Leverage: Mandating Treatment for Professionals” (with John Monahan), 3Int'l J. Forensic Mental Health 131 (2004).

"Mandated Community Treatment for Mental Disorder" (with J. Monahan & M. Swartz), 22Health Affairs 28 (2003).

“Injury as a Field of Public Health: Achievements and Controversies” (with Bernard Guyer), 30 J.L. Med. & Ethics 267 (2002).
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“Responsibility for Addiction,” 30 J. Am. Acad. Psychiatry & L. 405 (2002).

“Political Abuse of Psychiatry in the Soviet Union and China: Complexities and Controversies,” 30 J. Am. Acad. Psychiatry & L. 136 (2002).

“Public Health Ethics: Mapping the Terrain” (with others), 30 J.L. Med. & Ethics 170 (2002).
HeinOnline (PDF)

"Addiction and Responsibility," 68 Soc. Res. 813 (2001).

"Mandated Community Treatment: Beyond Outpatient Commitment" (with others), 52Psychiatric Serv. 1198 (2001).

“Resource Document on Mandatory Outpatient Treatment" (with Joan B. Gerbasi and Renee L. Binder), 28 J. Am. Acad. Psychiatry & L. 127 (2000).

“Unraveling Soviet Psychiatry" (with S. Polubinskaya), 10 J. Contemp. Legal Issues 279 (1999).
HeinOnline (PDF) 

"A Presidential Commission on Drug Policy: Instrument of Reform or Defender of the Status Quo?” 19 Contemp. Drug Probs. 169 (1998).
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“Psychometric Properties of the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool-Criminal Adjudication (MacCAT-CA)" (with others), 10 Psychol. Assessment 435 (1998).

"The Competence-Related Abilities of Women Criminal Defendants" (with others), 26 J. Am. Acad. Psychiatry & L. 215 (1998).

"Research Involving Cognitively Impaired Subjects: Unfinished Business in the Regulation of Human Research," 54 Archives of General Psychiatry 105 (1997).

“The MacArthur Adjudicative Competence Study: A Comparison of Criteria for Assessing the Competence of Criminal Defendants" (with others), 25 J. Am. Acad. Psychiatry & L.249 (1997).

“The MacArthur Adjudicative Competence Study I: Development and Validation of a Research Instrument" (with others), 21 Law & Hum. Behav. 141 (1997).

“The MacArthur Adjudicative Competence Study: Diagnosis, Psychopathology, and Adjudicative Competence-Related Abilities" (with others), Behav. Sci. & L. 15: 329 (1997).

"Decision-making in Criminal Defense: An Empirical Study of Insanity Pleas and the Impact of Doubted Client Competence" (with others), 87 J. Crim. L. & Criminology 48 (1996).
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"The Code of Professional Ethics of the Russian Society of Psychiatrists: Text and Commentary" (with S. Polubinskaya), 19 Int'l J.L. & Psychiatry 143 (1996).

"Mentally Ill and Non-Mentally Ill Defendants’ Abilities to Understand Information Relevant to Adjudication: A Preliminary Study" (with others), 24 Bull. Am. Acad. Psychiatry & the Law 187 (1996).

"Excusing and Punishing in Criminal Adjudication: A Reality Check," 5 Cornell J. L. & Pub. Pol'y 1 (1995).
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"The Evolution of the 1992 Law of the Russian Federation on Psychiatric Care" and "Law of the Russian Federation on Psychiatric Care and Guarantees of Citizens Rights in its Provision" (trans.), 27 J. Russian & East European Psychiatry 69 (1994).

"Client Abilities to Assist Counsel and Make Decisions in Criminal Cases: Findings from Three Studies" (with others), 18 L. & Hum. Behav. 435 (1994).

"The Competence of Criminal Defendants: Beyond Dusky and Drope," 47 U. Miami L. Rev. 539 (1993).
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"America's Drug Policy: Time for Another Commission?" 19 Contemp. Drug Probs. 395 (1992).
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"The Competence of Criminal Defendants: A Theoretical Reformulation," 10 Behav. Sci. & L. 291 (1992).

"Attorney-Client Decision-Making in Criminal Cases: Client Competence and Participation as Perceived By Their Attorneys" (with others), 10 Behav. Sci. & L. 385 (1992).

"Driving Performance and Automobile Accidents in Patients with Sleep Apnea" (with L. Findlay), 13 Clinics in Chest Med. 427 (1992).

"Preserving Justice in Capital Cases While Streamlining the Process of Collateral Review," 23 U. Toledo L. Rev. 99 (1991).
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"The Competence of Criminal Defendants With Mental Retardation to Participate in Their Own Defense," 81 J. Crim. L. & Criminology 419 (1990).
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"Coercive Psychiatry and Human Rights: An Assessment of Recent Changes in the Soviet Union," 1 Crim. L. F. 319 (1990).

"Soviet Psychiatry and Human Rights: Reflections on the Report of the U.S. Delegation," 18 Law, Medicine and Health Care 123 (1990).
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"Dilemmas in Administering the Death Penalty: Conscientious Abstention, Professional Ethics and the Needs of the Legal System," 14 J. L. & Hum. Behav. 67 (1990).

"Grounds for Professional Abstention in Capital Cases: A Reply to Brodsky," 14 J. L. & Hum. Behav. 99 (1990).

"Medical Ethics and the Death Penalty," 20 (3) Hastings Center Report 12 (1990).

"Statutory Approaches to Limiting Psychiatrists' Liability for Their Patients' Violent Acts" (with others), 146 Am. J. Psychiatry 821 (1989).

"The Dignity of the Condemned," 74 Va. L. Rev. 1363 (1988).
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"Professional Liability and the Quality of Mental Health Care," 16 Law, Medicine and Health Care 229 (1988).

"Debate: Should the Insanity Defense Be Abolished?" (with N. Morris), 1 J. L. & Health113 (1986-87).

"Regulating Conditions of Alcohol Availability: Possible Effects on Highway Safety," J. Studies on Alcohol (Supp. #10) 129 (1985).

"Psychiatrists and Capital Sentencing: Risks and Responsibilities in a Unique Legal Setting" (with C.R. Showalter), 12 Bull. Am. Acad. Psychiatry & L. 159 (1984).

"Morality, Equality and Expertise: Renegotiating the Relationship Between Psychiatry and the Criminal Law," 12 Bull. Am. Acad. Psychiatry & L. 5 (1984).

"The Role of Mental Health Professionals in the Criminal Process: The Case for Informed Speculation" (with C. Slobogin), 66 Va. L. Rev. 427 (1980).
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"Psychiatry and the Death Penalty: Some Emerging Problems in Virginia," 66 Va. L. Rev.167 (1980).
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"The Spousal Homicide Syndrome" (with C.R. Showalter and V. Roddy), 3 Int'l J. L. & Psychiatry 117 (1980).

"The Spousal Homicide Syndrome: Legal Implications" (with R. Showalter and V. Roddy), 8 Bull. Amer. Acad. Psychiatry & L. 431 (1980).

"Discouraging Unhealthy Personal Choices: Reflections on New Directions in Substance Abuse Policy" in 8 J. Drug Issues 199 (1978).

"Decriminalizing the Marijuana User: A Drafter's Guide," 11 Mich. J. L. Reform 3 (1977).

"The Forbidden Fruit and the Tree of Knowledge: An Inquiry into the Legal History of American Marijuana Prohibition" (with C.H. Whitebread, II), 56 Va. L. Rev. 971 (1970).
(part 1) HeinOnline (PDF) | (part 2) HeinOnline (PDF)

Book Chapters/Multi-Author Works:

“Ethics in Mental Health Care: A Public Health Perspective” (with Heather Zelle) in Mastroianni, et al, eds., Public Health Ethics (in press, Oxford, 2018)

“Fitness for Criminal Adjudication: The Emerging Significance of Decisional Competence in the United States,”  in Ronnie MacKay & Warren Brookbanks, eds., Fitness to Plead: International and Comparative Perspectives (Oxford, 2018).

"What I Learned When Massive Resistance Closed My School," in Mildred Wigfall Robinson & Richard J. Bonnie, eds., Law Touched Our Hearts: A Generation Remembers Brown v. Board of Education 135 (2009).

"Ethics and the Practice of Public Health," in R. Goodman, M. Rothstein, R. Hoffman, W. Lopez and G. Matthews Law in Public Health Practice (2d ed) 110-135 (Oxford, 2007)

"In the Wake of Hendricks: The Treatment and Restraint of Sexually Dangerous Offenders Viewed from the Perspective of American Psychiatry" (with Howard Zonana and Steven K. Hoge), in Bruce J. Winick & John Q. La Fond, Protecting Society from Sexually Dangerous Offenders: Law, Justice, and Therapy 131 (American Psychological Association Press, 2003).

“Tobacco and Public Health Policy: A Youth-Centered Approach,” in P. Slovic, ed.,Smoking: Risk, Perception, and Policy (Sage, 2001).

“Juvenile Justice on Appeal" (with L.F. Clausel), in J. Fagan & F. Zimring, The Changing Borders of Juvenile Justice: Waiver of Adolescents to the Criminal Court 181 (University of Chicago Press, 2000).

“Adjudicative Competence and Juvenile Offenders" (with Thomas Grisso), in Robert G. Schwartz & Thomas Grisso, Youth on Trial 73 (University of Chicago Press, 2000).

"When Push Comes to Shove: Aggressive Community Treatment and The Law" (with J. Berg), in Dennis and John Monahan, eds., Coercion and Aggressive Community Treatment: A New Frontier in Mental Health Law (Plenum, 1996).

"Juvenile Homicide: A Study in Legal Ambivalence," in D. Cornell, ed., Juvenile Homicide185 (American Psychiatric Association Press, 1989).

"The Efficacy of Law as a Paternalistic Instrument," in G. Melton, ed., Nebraska Symposium on Human Motivation, 1985 131 (Nebraska, 1986).

"Toward an Integrated Drug Abuse Prevention Policy: The Impact of Legal Restrictions and Controls," in Current Issues in Drug Abuse Prevention (NIDA Monograph, 1982).

"Discouraging the Use of Alcohol, Tobacco and Other Drugs: The Effects of Legal Controls and Restrictions," in Mello, ed., Advances in Substance Abuse Research (Vol. II: 145) (JAI Press 1982).

"The Psychiatric Patient's Right to Refuse Medication: A Survey of the Legal Issues," in A.E. Doudera and O.P. Swazey, eds., Refusing Treatment in Mental Health Institutions—Values in Conflict 19 (1982).

"Discouraging Unhealthy Personal Choices Through Government Regulation: Some Thoughts About the Minimum Drinking Age," in H. Wechsler, ed., Minimum Drinking Age Laws 39 (Lexington, 1980).

"Law and the Discouragement of Unhealthy Personal Choices," in Summary Proceedings: Tripartite Conference on Prevention (DHEW 1977).

"Regulation of Human Experimentation: A Reappraisal of Informed Consent" (with P.B. Hoffman), in Human Experimentation (S.M.U. Press 1976).

"The Uniform Drug Dependence Treatment and Rehabilitation Act and Commentary" (with M.R. Sonnenreich) Appendix (Vol. IV) to Drug Use in America: Problem in Perspective, The Final Report of the National Commission on Marihuana and Drug Abuse (1973).

"Remedies for Police Misconduct: The Exclusionary Rule and Other Devices" (with M. Paulsen and C.H. Whitebread, II), in Law and Order Reconsidered. A Staff Report to the President's Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence (1969).


The Effects of Alcoholic-Beverage Control Laws (co-author), sponsored and published by Medicine in the Public Interest, Inc. under grant from The National Institute of Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse (1979).

Decriminalizing the Drug-User: A Comparative View (National Institute on Drug Abuse, 1979).

Marijuana: A Study of State Penalties and Policies (co-author), sponsored published by The National Governor's Conference under grant from The Law Enforcement Assistance Administration (1977).

Brief Reports, Comments and Reviews:

“Mental illness, Diminished Responsibility, and the Death Penalty: A New Frontier,” 42 (2)  Hum. Rts. 21 (2017).

“Forum.” “Seeing Through the Smoke,” Issues in Science and Technology 32, no. 3 (Spring 2016).

“Getting Serious about Reducing Suicide: More How and Less Why” (with J. Swanson P.S. Appelbaum), 314 JAMA 2229 (2015).

“Foreword,” in Trestman, Appelbaum and Metzner, eds., Oxford Textbook of Correctional Psychiatry (2015). 

“Advance Directives: A Tool for Reducing Coercion,” 63 Psychiatric Services 411 (2012) (editorial). 

“A Systematic Examination of Smoke-Free Policies in Multi-Unit Dwellings in Virginia as Reported by Property Managers: Implications for Prevention” (with S.L. Jackson), 26 Am. J. Health Promotion 37 (2011)

"Reforming Civil Commitment: Serving Consumers' Needs While Protecting Their Rights," 25 Developments in Mental Health Law 3 (2006).

"The Virginia Human Rights System: Foundation for Respect," 23 Developments in Mental Health Law 11 (2004).

“The American Psychiatric Association’s Resource Document on Mental Retardation and Capital Sentencing: Implementing Atkins v. Virginia,” 32 J. Am. Acad. Psychiatry & L. 304 (2004).

Letter to the Editor on “Tobacco Advertising and Freedom of Speech,” 288 JAMA 1587 (2002).

“Reforming United States Drug Control Policy: Three Suggestions,” 68 Social Research863 (2001).

“Semyon Gluzman and the Unraveling of Soviet Psychiatry,” 29 J. Am. Acad. Psychiatry & L. 327 (2001).

“Medical Ethics and Human Rights in Psychiatric Care,” 18 Dev. in Mental Health L. 29 (1999).

“The Network of Reformers: A Five-Year Collaboration” (with S. Polubinskaya), Mental Health Reforms 1998 (4): 9-10 (1998).

“Model Ethical Code for Psychiatrists” (with S. Polubinskaya), Mental Health Reforms1997 (1): 5-7 (1997).

“Integrating Supply and Demand Reduction Strategies for Drug Abuse Prevention” (with M. Pentz and D. Shopland), Am. Behav. Scientist 39:897-910 (1996).

“New Code of Ethics for Russian Psychiatrists” (with S. Polubinskaya), 117 Bulletin of Medical Ethics 13 (1996).

"From the Institute of Medicine: Growing Up Tobacco Free" (with P. Torrens and B. Lynch), 273 JAMA 1326 (1995).

"Ferguson Spectacle Demeaned System," 17 Nat'l L.J. A23-24 (March 13, 1995).

"Legal Regulation of Drugs and Alcohol," "National Commission on Marijuana and Drug Abuse," "Controlled Substances Act of 1970," "Drug Paraphernalia Laws," MacMillian Encyclopedia of Drugs and Alcohol (1995) (J. Jaffee and M. Moore, eds). 

"Essay: Lorena Bobbitt, 'Moral Mistakes,' and the Price of Justice," 19 UVA Lawyer 23-26 (1995) and 14 Dev. in Mental Health L. 20-23 (1994).

"Time to Up the Ante in the War on Smoking" (with B. Lynch), 11 Issues in Science and Technology 33-37 (1994).

"New Currents in Mental Health Law," 13 Dev. in Mental Health L. 1 (No. 1, 1993).

"Medical Ethics and the Death Penalty" (editorial), 305 Brit. Med. J. 381-82 (1992).

"Interventions for Prenatal Misconduct," 10 Dev. in Mental Health L. 21 (No. 2, 1990).

"Alcohol as a Field of Legal Study" (editorial), 51 J. Studies on Alcohol 197-200 (1990).

"Soviet Psychiatry and Human Rights," Va. Law Sch. Rep. 6-12 (Winter, 1990).

"Insanity and the Moral Wrong Test," 14 Newsl. of Amer. Acad. Psychiatry & L., 100-101 (1989).

"Sleep Apnea and Auto Crashes: What is the Doctor to Do?" (editorial, with L. Findley), 94Chest 225-26 (1988).

"Comment on United States v. Charters," 8 Dev. in Mental Health L. 17-19 (No. 1, 1988).

"Wrongfulness and the Insanity Defense," 12 Newsl. of Amer. Acad. Psychiatry & L. 23-24 (1987).

"Mental Disability Law Crosses a New Frontier: A Review of Recent Developments," 6Dev. in Mental Health L. 21 (Nos. 3-4, 1986).

"Righting an Unconstitutional Wrong," Va. L. Sch. Rep. 18-21 (Spring, 1985).

"Group Homes and Restrictive Covenants," 4 Devel. in M.H. Law 17 (Nos.- 3-4, 1984).

"Compulsive Gambling and the Insanity Defense," 9 Newsl. of Am. Acad. Psychiatry & L.5-8 (1984).

"The Insanity Defense and the Trial of John W. Hinckley, Jr.," 71 A.B.A. J. 100-102 (1984)(book review).

"The Moral Basis of the Insanity Defense," 69 A.B.A. J. 194-197 (1983).

"Equality and Individualization in Criminal Punishment: Some Observations on the Current Crisis," 9 Va. Bar Assoc. J. 14-19 (1983).

"Concerning the Insanity Defense," Va. L. Sch. Rep. (Fall, 1982).

"The Insanity Defense: Proposals for Reform," 2 Devel. in M.H. Law 21 (1982).

"Guidelines for the Psychiatric Hospitalization of Minors: Clinical and Legal Considerations" (with A. Stone), 139 Am. J. Psychiatry 971-975 (1982).

"A Survey of Pretrial Psychiatric Evaluations in Richmond, Virginia" (with D. Hastings), 1Devel. in M.H. Law 9 (1981).

"The Meaning of 'Decriminalization': A Review of the Law," 10 Contemp. Drug Prob. 277-289 (1981).

"P. Browning Hoffman: The Legacy of an Idealist," 66 Va. L. Rev. 397-403 (1980).

"Legislating Marijuana Law Reform: Alternative Premises and Strategies," in 30 Va. L. Wkly., Dicta No. 12 (1977).

"Law and Morals," 172 Science Magazine 703-705 (1970) (book review).

Congressional Testimony:

"Ending the Tobacco Problem: Blueprint for the Nation," Hearings on H.R. 1108, Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act, before the Subcommittee on Health, of the Committee on Energy and Commerce, United States House of Representatives, 110th Congress, 1st Sess., October 3, 2007. 

"Reducing Underage Drinking: A Collective Responsibility," Hearing before the Subcommittee on Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services, Committee on Health, Education, Labor and Pensions, United States Senate, 108th Congress, 1st Sess. September 30, 2003.

“Elder Mistreatment in an Aging America,” Hearing before the Senate Finance Committee, U.S. Senate, 107th Congress, 2d Sess., June 18, 2002.

"Establishing a National Commission to Study the Demand for Drugs in the U.S.," Hearing Before the Subcommittee on Legislation and National Security of the Comm. on Gov't Operations, U.S. House of Representatives, 102d Cong., 1st Sess. (1991).

"Implementation of the Helsinki Accords," (Soviet Psychiatric Practices), Hearing Before the Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe, 101st Congress, 1st Session 36-39 (1989).
Published Conference Proceedings:

“Deciding About Death: Physician-Assisted Suicide and the Courts” The Pharos 61:2-7 (1998).

“Legalization of Physician-Assisted Suicide in Oregon: Analysis and Assessment” 11 BioLaw
(June 1995).

"The Death Penalty:  Dilemmas for Physicians and Society" 50 Pharos 23 (1987).

Symposium on Cocaine (sponsored by New York State Div. of Substance Abuse Services) (1982).

International Workshop on Aggression and Epilepsy, Bethesda, Md., March 20, 1980. See "Special Report: The Nature of Aggression During Epileptic Seizures," N.E.J. of Med. 305:711. 716 (1981).
Proceedings, ADAMHA Conference on Prevention--Looking to the Eighties, Silver Spring, Maryland, September 12-14 (1979) (Discussant).

Conference on Utilization of Social Science Research in Drug Policy-Making (sponsored and published by The National Institute on Drug Abuse) (1978).

Tripartite (U.S., U.K., Canada) Conference on Prevention (sponsored and published by The Alcohol, Drug Abuse and Mental Health Administration, HEW) (1977).

Conference on Developmental Screening and Assessment (sponsored and published by The American Association of Psychiatric Services for Children, Inc. and the Health Care Financing Administration of HEW) (1977).

Conference on Use of Human Tissue in In-Vitro Research (sponsored and published by the Tissue Culture Association) (Schiller, ed. 1977).

"Medical Confidentiality—Who Protects the Victims," 40 Pharos 24 (1977).

Current Courses

All Courses

Criminal Law
Germs, Guns, and Lead: Public Health Ethics and Law
Law & Ethics in Medical Practice
Mental Health Law
Legal and Moral Reasoning in Public Policy
Tobacco Policy
Aging and the Law




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